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Management of tree pests and pathogens is most successful and durable where an integrated management system is used. Such a system should be based on selection and breeding for disease and pest tolerant material and sound forestry practices (silviculture) to ensure stress-free plants, nursery and plantation hygiene. Based on this foundation, strategies such as biological and chemical control can then be used.

Tree health management can be treated in three main categories: PREVENTION, ERADICATION and MANAGEMENT. Prevention of disease and pest outbreaks includes sound quarantine to prevent the introduction of foreign pests and pathogens into a region, as well as the planting of disease/pest tolerant genotypes. Eradication is reliant on the early detection and report of new tree health problems, followed by the destruction of infected material before the pest/pathogen can spread to other areas. Eradication is, however, strongly reliant on effective monitoring and reporting systems to ensure rapid detection of new incursions. Management includes practices such as chemical and biological control, nursery and plantation hygiene, breeding and selection of resistant genotypes, effective silviculture to reduce inoculum/ insect population build-up as well as research focused on appropriate diagnoses and biology.

Forestry is a long term business and it is important to recognise that "quick fix" solutions to disease and pest problems are ineffectual and seldom realistic. Development of biological control agents, for example, may take up to ten years, depending on the available knowledge of the target pest.

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Human ZR, Crous CJ, Roets F, Venter SN, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW. (2017) Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different flowering stages of Protea repens. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10.1007/s10482-017-0942-3
Wingfield BD. (2017) The peer review system has flaws. But it’s still a barrier to bad science. The Conversation http://bit.ly/2holsgS
McTaggart AR, Beasley DR, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Pretorius ZA, Drenth A, Shivas RG, Roux J. (2017) A dynamic, web-based resource to identify rust fungi (Pucciniales) in southern Africa. MycoKeys 26:77-83. 10.3897/mycokeys.26.14602
De Maayer P, Aliyu H, Vikram S, Blom J, Duffy B, Cowan DA, Smits THM, Venter SN, Coutinho TA. (2017) Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, pathogenomic and evolutionary genomic insights into the agronomically relevant enterobacteria Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Frontiers in Microbiology 8(1755) 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01755
Jami F, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M, Slippers B. (2017) Diversity of tree-infecting Botryosphaeriales on native and non-native trees in South Africa and Namibia. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-017-0516-x