The Polyphagous Shothole Borer (PSHB) outbreak in South Africa is the largest geographical outbreak of this beetle in the world. It is affecting trees in all sectors: the agricultural and commercial forestry sector, urban trees (public spaces, streets, gardens), as well as native trees in natural forests. Over the past few years, researchers at FABI had been in contact with senior academics from seven universities in relation to PSHB research. From these engagements a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary research network evolved. At present we are aware of 16 research projects on PSHB conducted by Honours, Masters and PhD students, research fellows and postdoctoral fellows, that are overseen by altogether 17 supervisors from the different universities.

The PSHB Research Network was established at a meeting of these researchers in May 2019 at FABI. The aims and strategies of the PSHB Research Network are as follows:

  1. To align and coordinate all research efforts by bona fide researchers from academic institutions in South Africa. This is to make sure that expertise and resources are utilized to the maximum in order to answer the most important research questions related to PSHB and its fungal symbionts.
  2. To provide science- and data-based advice to all stakeholders in government and private sectors.
  3. To effectively communicate new research findings related to PHSB among network members and to stakeholders and the public.
  4. To leverage funding. By showing that research projects form part of a well-structured, coherent research programme, more funding opportunities should become available.

 

New Publications

Lynn KMT, Wingfield MJ, Durán A, Oliveira LSS, de Beer ZW, Barnes I. (2021) Novel Fusarium mutualists of two Euwallacea species infesting Acacia crassicarpa in Indonesia. Mycologia 10.1080/00275514.2021.1875708 PDF
Sinotte VM, Conlon BH, Seibel E, Schwitalla JW, de Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Bos N. (2021) Female-biased sex allocation and lack of inbreeding avoidance in Cubitermes termites. Ecology and Evolution 10.1002/ece3.7462
Nel WJ, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Duong TA. (2021) Ophiostomatalean fungi associated with wood boring beetles in South Africa including two new species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10.1007/s10482-021-01548-0
De Wit MP, Crookes DJ, Blignaut JN, de Beer ZW, Paap T, Roets F, Van der Merwe C, Richardson DM. (2021) Invasion of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle in South Africa: A preliminary assessment of the economic impacts. Biological Invasions PREPRINT 10.21203/rs.3.rs-220132/v1
Murphy R, Benndorf R, de Beer ZW, Vollmers J, Kaster AK, Beemelmanns C, Poulsen M. (2021) Comparative Genomics Reveals Prophylactic and Catabolic Capabilities of Actinobacteria within the Fungus-Farming Termite Symbiosis. bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.01.13.426627
Schalk F, Gostinčar C, Kreuzenbeck NB, Conlon BH, Sommerwerk E, Rabe P, Burkhardt I, Krüger T, Kniemeyer O, Brakhage AA, Gunde-Cimerman N, de Beer ZW, Dickschat JS, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2021) The termite fungal cultivar Termitomyces combines diverse enzymes and oxidative reactions for plant biomass conversion. mBio :2021.01.13.4266. 10.1101/2021.01.13.426627
Paap T, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW, Roets F. (2020) Lessons from a major pest invasion: The polyphagous shot hole borer in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 116(11/12) 10.17159/sajs.2020/8757
Geiser DM, Al-Hatmi A, Aoki T, Arie T, Balmas V, Barnes I, Bergstrom GC, Bhattacharyya MKK, Blomquist CL, Bowden R, Brankovics B, Brown DW, Burgess LW, Bushley K, Busman M, Cano-Lira JF, Carrillo JD, Chang HX, Chen CY, Chen W, Chilvers MI, Chulze SN, Coleman JJ, Cuomo CA, de Beer ZW, de Hoog GS, Del Castillo-Múnera J, Del Ponte E, Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Di Pietro A, Edel-Hermann V, Elmer WH, Epstein L, Eskalen A, Esposto MC, Everts KL, Fernández-Pavía SP, da Silva GF, Foroud NA, Fourie G, Frandsen RJN, Freeman S, Freitag M, Frenkel O, Fuller KK, Gagkaeva T, Gardiner DM, Glenn AE, Gold S, Gordon T, Gregory NF, Gryzenhout M, Guarro J, Gugino B, Gutiérrez S, Hammond-Kosack K, Harris LJ, Homa M, Hong CF, Hornok L, Huang JW, Ilkit M, Jacobs A, Jacobs K, Jiang C, Jimenez-Gasco MDM, Kang S, Kasson MT, Kazan K, Kennell JC, Kim H, Kistler HC, Kuldau GA, Kulik T, Kurzai O, Laraba I, Laurence MH, Lee TY, Lee YW, Lee YH, Leslie JF, Liew ECY, Lofton LW, Logrieco A, Sánchez López-Berges M, Luque AG, Lysøe E, Ma LJ, Marra RE, Martin FN, May SR, McCormick S, McGee CT, Meis JF, Migheli Q, Mohamed Nor NMI, Monod M, Moretti A, Mostert D, Mulé G, Munaut F, Munkvold GP, Nicholson P, Nucci M, O'Donnell K, Pasquali M, Pfenning LH, Prigitano A, Proctor R, Ranque S, Rehner S, Rep M, Rodríguez-Alvarado G, Rose LJ, Roth MG, Ruiz-Roldán C, Saleh AA, Salleh B, Sang H, Scandiani M, Scauflaire J, Schmale D 3, Short DP, Šišić A, Smith J, Smyth CW, Son H, Spahr E, Stajich JE, Steenkamp E, Steinberg C, Subramaniam R, Suga H, Summerell BA, Susca A, Swett CL, Toomajian C, Torres-Cruz TJ, Tortorano AM, Urban M, Vaillancourt LJ, Vallad GE, van der Lee T, Vanderpool D, van Diepeningen AD, Vaughan M, Venter E, Vermeulen M, Verweij PE, Viljoen A, Waalwijk C, Wallace EC, Walther G, Wang J, Ward T, Wickes B, Wiederhold NP, Wingfield MJ, Wood AKM, Xu JR, Yang XB, Yli-Matilla T, Yun SH, Zakaria L, Zhang H, Zhang N, Zhang S, Zhang X. (2020) Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1 kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic Fusarium that includes the Fusarium solani Species Complex. Phytopathology 10.1094/PHYTO-08-20-0330-LE
Twiddy D, de Beer ZW, Fourie G. (2020) The PSHB and its potential impact on the South African macadamia Industry. SAMAC Journal PDF
Twiddy D, Fell S, de Beer ZW, Fourie G. (2020) Screening for susceptibility of Macadamia to E. fornicatus and its fungal symbiont Fusarium euwallaceae. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1555-SC
Rak Lee S, Beemelmanns C, Jung W, Ahn M, Park M, De Beer ZW, Kaster A, Vollmers J, Benndorf R, Schwitalla J, Schalk F, Kim KH. (2020) Polyhalogenation of Isoflavonoids by the Termite-Associated Actinomadura sp. RB99. Journal of Natural Products 83(10):3102-3110. 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00676
Schwitalla JW, Benndorf R, Martin K, Vollmers J, Kaster AK, De Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2020) Streptomyces smaragdinus sp. nov., isolated from the gut of the fungus growing-termite Macrotermes natalensis. IJSEM 70:5806–5811. 10.1099/ijsem.0.004478
Nel WJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Duong TA. (2020) The granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont found in South Africa. Zootaxa 4838(3):427-435. 10.11646/zootaxa.4838.3.7
Benndorf R, Martin K, Küfner M, De Beer ZW, Vollmers J, Kaster AK, Beemelmanns C. (2020) Actinomadura rubteroloni sp. nov. and Actinomadura macrotermitis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of fungus growing-termite Macrotermes natalensis. IJSEM 70(10):5255–5262. 10.1099/ijsem.0.004403
Benndorf R, Schwitalla JW, Martin K, De Beer ZW, Vollmers J, Kaster AK, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2020) Nocardia macrotermitis sp. nov. and Nocardia aurantia sp. nov., isolated from the gut of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis. IJSEM 10.1099/ijsem.0.004398
Chang R, Duong TA, Taerum SJ, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD, De Beer ZW. (2020) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with mites phoretic on bark beetles in Qinghai, China. IMA Fungus :15. 10.1186/s43008-020-00037-9
Marincowitz S, Duong TA, Stephen SJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2020) Fungal associates of an invasive pine-infesting bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens including seven new Ophiostomatalean fungi. Persoonia 45:177-195. 10.3767/persoonia.2020.45.07 PDF
Marincowitz S, Barnes I, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2020) Epitypification of Ceratocystis fimbriata. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 10.3114/fuse.2020.06.14
Hulcr J, Barnes I, De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Gazis R, Johnson AJ, Jusino MA, Kasson MT, Li Y, Lynch S, Mayers C, Musvuugwa T, Roets F, Seltmann KC, Six D, Vanderpool D, Villari C. (2020) Bark beetle mycobiome: collaboratively defined research priorities on a widespread insect-fungus symbiosis. Symbiosis 10.1007/s13199-020-00686-9 PDF
Schalk F, Um S, Guo H, Kreuzenbeck NB, Görls H, De Beer ZW, Beemelmanns C. (2020) Targeted discovery of tetrapeptides and cyclic polyketide-peptide hybrids from a fungal antagonist of farming termites. ChemBioChem 10.1002/cbic.202000331
Guo H, Schwitalla JW, Benndorf R, Baunach M, Steinbeck C, Görls H, De Beer ZW, Regestein L, Beemelmanns C. (2020) Gene cluster activation in a bacterial symbiont leads to halogenated angucyclic maduralactomycins and spirocyclic actinospirols. Organic Letters 22(7):2634-2638. 10.1021/acs.orglett.0c00601
Fell S, De Beer ZW. (2020) Understanding the threat of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer to the pecan industry. SA Pekan 85:34-36. http://bit.ly/2V8tcYa PDF
Lynn KMT, Wingfield MJ, Durán A, Marincowitz S, Oliveira LSS , De Beer Z, Barnes I. (2020) Euwallacea perbrevis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a confirmed pest on Acacia crassicarpa in Riau, Indonesia, and a new fungal symbiont; Fusarium rekanum sp. nov.. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 113(6):803-823. 10.1007/s10482-020-01392-8 PDF
Musvuugwa T, De Beer ZW, Dreyer LL, Duong T, Marincowitz S, Oberlander KC, Roets F. (2020) New ophiostomatoid fungi from wounds on storm-damaged trees in Afromontane forests of the Cape Floristic Region. Mycological Progress 19(1):81-95. 10.1007/s11557-019-01545-8
Yin ML, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD, de Beer ZW. (2020) Phylogenetic re-evaluation of the Grosmania penicillata complex (Ascomycota, Ophiostomatales), with the description of five new species from China and USA. Fungal Biology 124(2):110-124. 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.12.003
Liu FF, de Beer ZW, Divakar PK, Crespo A, Pizarro D, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Kanzi AM, Sayari M, Chang RL, Ferreira MA, Chen SF, Duong TA. (2019) DRaft genome sequences of five Calonectria species from Eucalyptus plantations in China, Celoiporthe dispersa, Sporothrix phasma and Alectoria sarmentosa. IMA Fungus 10(22) 10.1186/s43008-019-0023-5
Yin M, Wingfield MJ, Zhou X, Linnakoski R, de Beer ZW. (2019) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Leptographium olivaceum complex (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota), including descriptions of six new species from China and Europe. MycoKeys 60:93-123. 10.3897/mycokeys.60.39069
Hoang MTV, Irinyi L, Chen SCA, Sorrell TC, TIBoMFWG, Meyer W, Arabatzis M, Arthur I, Cano-Lira JF, Cardinali G, Castañón LR, Chen W, Chindamporn A, Colombo AL, Desnos-Ollivier M, de Beer W, de Hoog S, Dromer F, Garcia-Hermoso D, Gryzenhout M, Guarro J, Halliday C, Hendrickx M, Huhndorf S, Irinyi L, Levesque CA, Meyer W, Luiza Moretti M, de Medeiros Muniz M, de Azevedo Melo AS, Satie Nishikaku A, Normand A-C, Pais C, Piarroux R, Ranque S, Robbertse B, Robert V, Schoch CL, Seifert KA, de Almeida Soares CM, Sorrell TC, Spouge JL, Stubbe D, Lucia Taylor M, Toriello C, Velegraki A, Yurayart C, Maria Zancopé-Oliveira R. (2019) Dual DNA Barcoding for the Molecular Identification of the Agents of Invasive Fungal Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology 10(1647) 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01647
Fell S, De Beer ZW. (2019) The impact of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer on Pecan trees in South Africa. SA Pecan 82:11-13. https://bit.ly/2U2Nyj6 PDF
Van den Berg N, Du Toit M, Morgan SW, Fourie G, De Beer ZW. (2019) First Report of Fusarium euwallaceae on Persea americana in South Africa. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1818-PDN
Nel WJ, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Black root rot: A long known but little understood disease. Plant Pathology 68(5):834-842. 10.1111/ppa.13011 PDF
Conlon BH, Aanen DK, Beemelmanns C, De Beer ZW, De Fine Licht HH, Gunde-Cimerman N, Schiøtt M, Poulsen M. (2019) Reviewing the taxonomy of Podaxis: opportunities for understanding extreme fungal lifestyles. Fungal Biology 123(3):183-266. 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.01.001
Chang R, Duong TA, Taerum SJ, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD, Yin M, De Beer ZW. (2019) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, including 11 new species from China. Persoonia 42:50-74. 10.3767/persoonia.2019.42.03 PDF
Wingfield BD, Kolarik M, Menzies JG, Naidoo K, Pochopski O, Shoukouhi P, Santana QC, Seifert KA, Soal NA, Steenkamp ET, Tatham CT, Van der Nest MA, Havenga M, Findlay W, Liu M, Nguyen HDT, Lane FA, Morgan SW, De Vos L, Wilken PM, Doung TA, Aylward J, Coetzee MPA, Dadej K, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Nine draft genome sequences of Claviceps purpurea s.lat., including C. arundinis, C. humidiphila, and C. cf. spartinae, pseudomolecules for the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum, draft genome of Davidsoniella eucalypti, Grosmannia galeiformis, Quambalaria eucalypti, and Teratosphaeria destructans. IMA Fungus 9(2):401-418. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.10 PDF
Lee SR, Lee D, Yu JS, Benndorf R, Lee D-S, Huh J, de Beer ZW, Kim YH, Beemelmanns C, Kang KS, Kim KH. (2018) Natalenamides A–C, Cyclic Tripeptides from the Termite-Associated Actinomadura sp. RB99. Molecules 23(11) 10.3390/molecules23113003
De Beer ZW, Paap T. (2018) The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control. The Conversation https://bit.ly/2Dl46ia
Benndorf R, Guo H, Sommerwerk E, Weigel C, Garcia-Altares M, Martin K, Hu H, Küfner M, De Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2018) Natural products from Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. Antibiotics 7(3):83. 10.3390/antibiotics7030083 PDF
Nel WJ, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Hammerbacher A, De Beer ZW. (2018) Heterothallism revealed in the root rot fungi Berkeleyomyces basicola and B. rouxiae. Fungal Biology 122(11):1031-1040. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.08.006 PDF
Wingfield BD, Bills GF, Dong Y, Huang W, Nel WJ, Swalarsk-Parry BS, Vaghefi N, Wilken PM, An Z, de Beer ZW, De Vos L, Chen L, Duong TA, Gao Y, Hammerbacher A, Kikkert JR, Li Y, Li H, Li K, Li Q, Liu X, Ma X, Naidoo K, Pethybridge SJ, Sun J, Steenkamp ET, van der Nest M, van Wyk S, Wingfield MJ, Xiong C, Yue Q, Zhang X. (2018) IMA Genome-F 9 Draft genome sequence of Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina, and Morchella septimelata. IMA Fungus 9(1):199-223. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.13 PDF
Taerum SJ, De Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, Jankowiak R, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Ophiostoma quercus: an unusually diverse and globally widespread tree-infecting fungus. Fungal Biology 122(9):900-910. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.05.005 PDF
Klopper RR, De Beer ZW, Smith GF. (2018) Some outcomes of the Nomenclature Section of the XIXth International Botanical Congress. Bothalia 48(1):a2329. 10.4102/abc.v48i1.2329
Masekela R, Vosloo S, Venter SN, De Beer ZW, Green RJ. (2018) The lung microbiome in children with HIV-bronchiectasis: a cross-sectional pilot study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 18:87. 10.1186/s12890-018-0632-6
De Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ. (2018) (2592) Proposal to conserve Endoconidiophora fagacearum (Bretziella fagacearum, Ceratocystis fagacearum) against Chalara quercina (Thielaviopsis quercina) (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes: Microascales). Taxon 67:440-440. 10.12705/672.14
Paap T, de Beer ZW, Migliorini D, Nel W, Wingfield MJ. (2018) The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and its fungal symbiont Fusarium euwallaceae: a new invasion in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 47(2):231-237. 10.1007/s13313-018-0545-0 PDF
De Beer ZW. (2018) A tiny beetle and its deadly fungus is threatening South Africa’s trees. The Conversation (27 February) http://bit.ly/2F0J2Ln PDF
Wilken PM, Steenkamp ET, Van der Nest MA, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD. (2018) Unexpected placement of the MAT1-1-2 gene in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of Thielaviopsis. Fungal Genetics and Biology 32:32-41. 10.1016/j.fgb.2018.01.007
Some outcomes of the Nomenclature Section of the XIXth International Botanical Congress. Bothalia 48(1):a2329.
Nel WJ, Duong TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW. (2018) A new genus and species for the globally important, multi-host root pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Pathology 67:871-882. 10.1111/ppa.12803 PDF
Human ZR, Crous CJ, Roets F, Venter SN, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW. (2018) Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different flowering stages of Protea repens. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 111(2):209-226. 10.1007/s10482-017-0942-3
Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (Euwallacea sp.) and Fusarium dieback (Fusarium euwallaceae)