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Associate Professor

Department

Microbiology and Plant Pathology
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I am a mycologist/fungal biologist and my research focuses on fungal plant and human pathogens belonging to the Ophiostomatales and Microascales (Ascomycetes), and the smut-like Microstromatales (Basidiomycetes). These groups include species from well-known genera such as Ophiostoma, Leptographium, Sporothrix, Ceratocystis and Quambalaria. My research covers aspects of taxonomy, nomenclature, phylogenetics, population genetics, mating, and diagnostics, as well as fungus-insect symbioses, fungal ecology, pathogenicity to plants and humans, bluestain and decay of timber. I direct and coordinate all the taxonomic publications from FABI on these organisms.

We are fortunate to also be involved in several projects generating whole genome sequence data for many species of the genera mentioned above. The availability of these data is having a huge impact on the research questions we can ask and attempt to answer. Several projects utilizing and exploring these genome data are underway.

In addition to my research, I oversee the FABI culture collection and manage the FABI research nursery and clone banks on the experimental farm of the university. I also have overall responsibility for the FABI website.

I am a member of the Department of Microbiology and apart from supervising MSc and PhD students, I am involved in the BSc Honours program. I am also responsible for one third of the lectures in the MBY261 Mycology course for second year BSc students, and the mycology lectures in the Microbiology course for first years. The 2016 classes are about 450 and 800 students respectively.


Hawksworthiomyces sequentia ENAS

The impacts of DNA sequencing on fungal taxonomy and nomenclature over the past quarter century have been dramatic. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences enabled fungal taxonomists to accurately classify fungi known from either their sexual or asexual states in species and genera that reflect their evolutionary relatedness, rather than some randomly chosen phenotypic traits. After more than a decade of debates, the One Fungus One Name principles were incorporated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (ICN), making an end to the classification of different morphs of one fungus in different genera.

More recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies also made it possible for ecologists to explore microbial (including fungal) biodiversity in different environments (e.g. soil, the rhizosphere, endophytes of plants, water, etc.) by analyzing environmental DNA rather than trying to culture the organisms from these niches. This led to an exponential increase in the numbers of undescribed taxa being discovered, but also to a growing communication gap between environmentalists and traditional taxonomists, because these taxa are named or numbered in different ways in different studies. The current challenge for fungal taxonomists and nomenclaturalists is to come up with a universally accepted system to name these novel taxa known only from DNA sequences in a way that is comprehensible and easy to use for all biologists.

I attach below a list of key papers that discuss the need and various options for naming DNA-based taxa. These discussions have culminated in a proposal in the journal Taxon to adapt the Code to allow the formal naming of fungal species with only a DNA sequence as type (Hawksworth et al. 2016), that will be presented for voting at the 19th International Botanical Congress (IBC) in 2017 in Shenzhen, China. The first example of how environmental sequences can be used to describe a new species have been published (De Beer et al. 2016), but discussions are ongoing within the mycological community (Hibbett et al. 2016) and the International Committe for the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) to formalize guidelines and standards for the naming of these taxa.

References

De Beer, ZW, Marincowitz, S, Duong, TA, et al. (2016). Hawksworthiomyces gen. nov. (Ophiostomatales), illustrates the urgency for a decision on how to name novel taxa known only from environmental nucleic acid sequences (ENAS). Fungal Biology 120: 1323-1340

Hawksworth, DL, Hibbett, DS, Kirk, PM, Lücking, R (2016). (308–310) Proposals to permit DNA sequence data to serve as types of names of fungi. Taxon 65: 899-900

Hibbett, D, Abarenkov, K, Koljalg, U, et al. (2016). Sequence-based classification and identification of Fungi. Mycologia online early

More key publications on DNA sequence-based taxa


At present four protein-coding genes are regularly used for species recognition in the Ophiostomatales. However, the presence and absence of introns vary between different species complexes in the order. It is thus necessary to carefully compare aligned data sets to gene maps of the respective genes to ensure that exons and introns are appropriately aligned. In the supplement to the paper by Yin et al. (2015) we provided gene maps of four genes of Grosmannia clavigera, to assist with the recognition of introns in the alignments. These maps are presented individually here. They will also be useful for the detection of introns in other Ascomycetes.

Actin, Beta-tubulin, Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha, Calmodulin


In a recent publication we revised the genus Ceratocystis sensu lato based on a phylogenetic analyses of three carefully selected gene regions, and including 79 species. What was an aggregate genus before, is now divided in seven phylogenetically and biologically distinct genera. The manuscript is available below under My Journal Articles (De Beer et al. 2014 Studies in Mycology). To ease the process of finding the appropriate name for Ceratocystis species now treated in other genera, I prepared a colour coded list of all the new names.

Photo: Ascomata of C. fimbriata, type species for Ceratocystis.

 


A new book on the ophiostomatoid fungi was published in 2013, following on the success of the previous book on this group of fungi, published in 1993. The cover text of the new book introduces it as follows: "Ophiostoma – Ceratocystis – Grosmannia – Leptographium – Sporothrix.  These are the ophiostomatoid fungi that have plagued forestry and agriculture for millennia, and fascinated biologists for two centuries. Their symbioses with insects, particularly bark beetles and their associated phoretic mites, allow them to rapidly spread into new environments, from country to country, from one continent to another. Whether they cause tree diseases or blue-stain of lumber, or diseases of root crops or coffee, the ophiostomatoid fungi are a focus of quarantine and biosecurity specialists who regulate the safety of world trade. This book provides new perspectives on the taxonomy, phylogeny and genomics of these fungi, new information on their occurrence in previously little-explored parts of the globe, and reviews their interactions with invertebrates, their economic impact, and the role that biological control might play in controlling them."  Editors: Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. Contents page.

The book forms part of the CBS Biodiversity series and can be ordered online from APS (North America) or CBS (Europe and the rest of the world). Read reviews of the book in the June 2013 issue of IMA Fungus and The Newsletter of The Mycological Society of Japan (In Japanese).


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Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. 2013. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers. CBS Biodiversity Series 12. CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Centre: Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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Book Chapters
De Beer ZW, Seifert KA, Wingfield MJ. 2013. A nomenclator for ophiostomatoid genera and species in the Ophiostomatales and Microascales. In: The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers. Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (eds). CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp 245-322. PDF
De Beer ZW, Seifert KA, Wingfield MJ. 2013. The ophiostomatoid fungi: their dual position in the Sordariomycetes. In: The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers. Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (eds). CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp 1-19.
De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. 2013. Emerging lineages in the Ophiostomatales. In: The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers. Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (eds). CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp 21-46. PDF
Jacobs K, Dames J, Steenkamp E, De Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, Gryzenhout M, Marais G, Coetzee J, Rong I, A. J, Victor J, Hamer M. 2013. Chapter 5. Fungi. In: A Biosystematics Research Strategy for the Algae, Animals, Bacteria and Archaea, Fungi and Plants of South Africa 2013–2018. Victor JE, Hamer M, Smith GF. (eds). SANBI Biodiversity Series 23, Pretoria, South Africa, pp 23-29. PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. 2013. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with conifer-infesting bark beetles in China. In: The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers. Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (eds). CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp 93-100.
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Publication
Nel WJ, Duong TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW. (2017) A new genus and species for the globally important, multi-host root pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.12803
De Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ. (2017) Bretziella, a new genus to accommodate the oak wilt fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum (Microascales, Ascomycota). MycoKeys 27 10.3897/mycokeys.27.20657 PDF
Human ZR, Crous CJ, Roets F, Venter SN, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW. (2017) Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different flowering stages of Protea repens. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10.1007/s10482-017-0942-3
Jankowiak R, Strzałka B, Bilański P, Linnakoski R, Aas T, Solheim H, Groszek M, De Beer ZW. (2017) Two new Leptographium spp. reveal an emerging complex of hardwood-infecting species in the Ophiostomatales. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 110(12):1537-1553. 10.1007/s10482-017-0905-8
Wilken PM, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD. (2017) Which MAT gene? Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota) mating-type gene nomenclature reconsidered. Fungal Biology Reviews 31:199-211. 10.1016/j.fbr.2017.05.003
Wingfield MJ, Barnes I, De Beer ZW, Roux J, Wingfield BD, Taerum SJ. (2017) Novel associations between ophiostomatoid fungi, insects and tree hosts: current status—future prospects. Biological Invasions 19:3215-3228. 10.1007/s10530-017-1468-3
Miller A, Cai L, Crous PW, De Beer ZW, Hawksworth DL, Hyde KD, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, May TW, Rossman AY, Schoch CL, Seifert KA. (2017) Mycologists' committees strongly support changes to the governance of fungal nomenclature. IMA Fungus 8(1):(9)-(11). PDF
Marin-Felix Y, Groenewald JZ, Cai L, Chen Q, Marincowitz S, Barnes I, Bensch K, Braun U, Camporesi E, Damm U, De Beer ZW, Dissanayake A, Edwards J, Giraldo A, Hernández-Restrepo M, Hyde KD, Jayawardena RS, Lombard L, Luangsa-ard J, McTaggart AR, Rossman AY, Sandoval-Denis M, Shen M, Shivas RG, Tan YP, van der Linde EJ, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Zhang JQ, Zhang Y, Crous PW. (2017) Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 1. Studies in Mycology 86:99-216. 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.04.002
Guo H, Benndorf R, Leichnitz D, Klassen JL, Vollmers J, Görls H, Steinacker M, Weigel C, Dahse H-M, Kaster A-K, De Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2017) Isolation, biosynthesis and chemical modifications of rubterolones A-F, rare tropolone alkaloids from Actinomadura sp. 5-2. Chemistry – A European Journal 10.1002/chem.201701005
Kolařík M, Hulcr J, Tisserat N, De Beer ZW, Kostovčík M, Kolaříková Z, Seybold SJ, Rizzo DM. (2017) Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: Taxonomic diversity and vector specificity. Mycologia 10.1080/00275514.2017.1303861
Marincowitz S, Duong TA, Heiniger U, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW. (2017) A new Leptographium species from the roots of declining Pinus sylvestris in Switzerland. Forest Pathology 10.1111/efp.12346
Conlon BH, Mitchell J, De Beer ZW, Carøe C, Gilbert MTP, Eilenberg J, Poulsen M, de Fine Licht HH. (2017) Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota). Data in Brief 11:537–542. 10.1016/j.dib.2017.02.051 PDF
Tsopelas P, Santini A, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW. (2017) Canker stain: A lethal disease destroying iconic plane trees. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-09-16-1235-FE PDF
Human ZR, Slippers B, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Venter SN. (2017) Antifungal actinomycetes associated with the pine bark beetle, Orthotomicus erosus, in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 113(1/2):2016-0215. 10.17159/sajs.2017/20160215 PDF
Osorio JA, Crous CJ, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Roux J. (2017) An assessment of mangrove diseases and pests in South Africa. Forestry 10.1093/forestry/cpw063
Taerum SJ, Hoareau TB, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Jankowiak R, Wingfield MJ. (2017) Putative origins of the fungus Leptographium procerum. Fungal Biology 121(1):82-94. 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.09.007
Osorio JA, Crous CJ, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2017) Endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae, including five new species, associated with mangrove trees in South Africa. Fungal Biology 121(4):361-393. 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.09.004
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI, Hardy GESJ, Crane C, Barrett S, Cano-Lira JF, Le Roux JJ, Thangavel R, Guarro J, Stchigel AM, Martín MP, Alfredo DS, Barber PA, Barreto RW, Baseia IG, Cano-Canals J, Cheewangkoon R, Ferreira RJ, Gené J, Lechat C, Moreno G, Roets F, Shivas RG, Sousa JO, Tan YP, Wiederhold NP, Abell SE, Accioly T, Albizu JL, Alves JL, Antoniolli ZI, Aplin N, Araújo J, Arzanlou M, Bezerra JDP, Bouchara J-P, Carlavilla JR, Castillo A, Castroagudín VL, Ceresini PC, Claridge GF, Coelho G, Coimbra VRM, Costa LA, Da Cunha KC, Da Silva SS, Daniel R, De Beer ZW, Dueñas M, Edwards J, Enwistle P, Fiuza PO, Fournier J, García D, Gibertoni TB, Giraud S, Guevara-Suarez M, Gusmão LFP, Haituk S, Heykoop M, Hirooka Y, Hofmann TA, Houbraken J, Hughes DP, Kautmanová I, Koppel O, Koukol O, Larsson E, Latha KPD, Lee DH, Lisboa DO, Lisboa WS, López-Villalba Á, Maciel JLN, Manimohan P, Manjón JL, Marincowitz S, Marney TS, Meijer M, Miller AN, Olariaga I, Paiva LM, Piepenbring M, Poveda-Molero JC, Raj KNA, Raja HA, Rougeron A, Salcedo I, Samadi R, Santos TAB, Scarlett K, Seifert KA, Shuttleworth LA, Silva GA, Silva M, Siqueira JPZ, Souza-Motta CM, Stephenson SL, Sutton DA, Tamakeaw N, Telleria MT, Valenzuela-Lopez N, Viljoen A, Visagie CM, Vizzini A, Wartchow F, Wingfield BD, Yurchenko E, Zamora JC, Groenewald JZ. (2016) Fungal Planet description sheets: 469–557. Persoonia 37:218-403. 10.3767/003158516x694499
Wingfield BD, Duong TA, Hammerbacher A, van der Nest MA, Wilson A, Chang R, de Beer ZW, Steenkamp ET, Wilken PM, Naidoo K, Wingfield MJ. (2016) IMA Genome-F 7 Draft genome sequences for Ceratocystis fagacearum, C. harringtonii, Grosmannia penicillata, and Huntiella bhutanensis. IMA Fungus 7(2):317-323. 10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.02.11 PDF
Simmons DR, De Beer ZW, Huang Y-T, Bateman CC, Campbell A, Dreaden TJ, Li Y, Ploetz RC, Black A, Li H-F, Chen C-Y, Wingfield MJ, Hulcr J. (2016) New Raffaelea species (Ophiostomatales) from the USA and Taiwan associated with ambrosia beetles and plant hosts. IMA Fungus 7(2):265-273. 10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.02.06 PDF
Human ZR, Moon K, Bae M, De Beer ZW, Cha S, Wingfield MJ, Slippers B, Oh D-C, Venter SN. (2016) Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa. Frontiers in Microbiology 7(1657) 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01657
May TW, De Beer ZW, Crous PW, Hawksworth DL, Liu X, Norvell LL, Pennycook SR, Redhead SA, Seifert KA. (2016) (362–363) Proposals to amend the Code to modify its governance with respect to names of organisms treated as fungi. Taxon 65(4):918-920. 10.12705/654.47 PDF
Osorio JA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2016) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with mangroves in South Africa, including Ophiostoma palustre sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 109(12):1555-1571. 10.1007/s10482-016-0757-7
De Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, Duong TA, Kim JJ, Rodrigues A, Wingfield MJ. (2016) Hawksworthiomyces gen. nov. (Ophiostomatales), illustrates the urgency for a decision on how to name novel taxa known only from environmental nucleic acid sequences (ENAS). Fungal Biology 120(11):1323-1340. 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.07.004
De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ. (2016) The divorce of Sporothrix and Ophiostoma: solution to a problematic relationship. Studies in Mycology 83:165–191. 10.1016/j.simyco.2016.07.001 PDF
Wingfield BD, Ambler JM, Coetzee MPA, De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Joubert F, Hammerbacher A, McTaggart AR, Naidoo K, Nguyen HDT, Ponomareva E, Santana QS, Seifert KA, Steenkamp ET, Trollip C, Van der Nest MA, Visagie CM, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ, Yilmaz N. (2016) IMA Genome-F 6: Draft genome sequences of Armillaria fuscipes, Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Ceratocystis adiposa, Endoconidiophora laricicola, E. polonica and Penicillium freii DAOMC 242723. IMA Fungus 7(1):217-227. 10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.11 PDF
Reblova M, Ju Y-M, Judith C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Pang K-L, Petrini LE, Raja HA, Romreo AI, Shearer C, Senanayake IC, Voglmayr H, Weir BS, Jones EBG, Jaklitsch W, Jayawardena R, Miller AN, Rossman AY, Seifert KA, Crous PW, Hawksworth DL, Abdel-Wahab MA, Cannon PF, Daranagama DA, De Beer ZW, Huang S-K, Hyde KD, Wijayawarden NN. (2016) Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA Fungus 7(1):131-153. 10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.08 PDF
Conlon BH, De Beer ZW, De Fine Licht HK, Aanen DK, Poulsen M. (2016) Phylogenetic analyses of diverse Podaxis specimens from Southern Africa reveal hidden diversity and new insights into associations with termites. Fungal Biology 120(9):1065-1076. 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.05.011
Linnakoski R, Jankowiak R, Villari C, Kirisits T, Solheim H, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2016) The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 109:987-1018. 10.1007/s10482-016-0700-y
Musvuugwa T, de Beer ZW, Duong TA, Dreyer LL, Oberlander K, Roets F. (2016) Wounds on Rapanea melanophloeos provide habitat for a large diversity of Ophiostomatales including four new species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 109(6):877-894. 10.1007/s10482-016-0687-4
Wingfield MJ, Garnas JR, Hajek A, Hurley BP, de Beer ZW, Taerum SJ. (2016) Novel and co-evolved associations between insects and microorganisms as drivers of forest pestilence. Biological Invasions 18(4):1045-1056. 10.1007/s10530-016-1084-7
Taerum SJ, Konečný A, de Beer ZW, Cibrian-Tovar D, Wingfield MJ. (2016) Population genetics and symbiont assemblages support different invasion scenarios for the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118(3):486-502. 10.1111/bij.12781 PDF
Van der Linde JA, Six DL, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2016) Novel ophiostomatalean fungi from galleries of Cyrtogenius africus (Scolytinae) infesting dying Euphorbia ingens. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 109(4):589-601. 10.1007/s10482-016-0661-1
De Errasti A, De Beer ZW, Coetzee MPA, Roux J, Rajchenberg M, Wingfield MJ. (2016) Three new species of Ophiostomatales from Nothofagus in Patagonia. Mycological Progress 15(2):17. 10.1007/s11557-016-1158-z
Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2016) Mating type markers reveal high levels of heterothallism in Leptographium sensu lato. Fungal Biology 120(4):538-546. 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.01.001
Yin M, Wingfield MJ, Zhou X, De Beer ZW. (2016) Multigene phylogenies and morphological characterization of five new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in China. Fungal Biology 120(4):454-470. 10.1016/j.funbio.2015.12.004
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Le Roux JJ, Richardson DM, Strasberg D, Shivas RG, Alvarado P, Edwards J, Moreno G, Sharma R, Sonawane M.S., Tan YP, Altés A, Barasubiye T, Barnes CW, Blanchette RA, Boertmann D, Bogo A, Carlavilla JR, Cheewangkoon R, Daniel R, de Beer ZW, de Jesús Yáñez-Morales M, Duong TA, Fernández-Vicente J, Geering ADW, Guest DI, Held BW, Heykoop M, Hubka V, Ismail AM, Kajale SC, Khemmuk W, Kolařík M, Kurli R, Lebeuf R, Lévesque CA, Lombard L, Magista D, Manjón JL, Marincowitz S, et al. (2015) Fungal Planet description sheets: 371–399. Persoonia 35:264-327. 10.3767/003158515X690269 PDF
Wingfield BD, Barnes I, De Beer ZW, De Vos L, Duong TA, Kanzi AM, Naidoo K, Nguyen HDT, Santana QC, Sayari M, Seifert KA, Steenkamp ET, Trollip C, Van der Merwe N, Van der Nest MA, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ. (2015) Draft genome sequences of Ceratocystis eucalypticola, Chrysoporthe cubensis, C. deuterocubensis, Davidsoniella virescens, Fusarium temperatum, Graphilbum fragrans, Penicillium nordicum, and Thielaviopsis musarum. IMA Fungus 6(2):493-506. 10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.02.13 PDF
Stielow JB, Lévesque CA, Seifert KA, Meyer W, Irinyi L, Smits D, Renfurm R, Verkley GJM, Groenewald M, Chaduli D, Lomascolo A, Welti S, Lesage-Meessen L, Favel A, Al-Hatmi AMS, Damm U, Yilmaz N, Houbraken J, Lombard L, Quaedvlieg W, Binder M, Vaas LAI, Vu D, Yurkov A, Begerow D, Roehl O, Guerreiro M, Fonseca A, Samerpitak K, Van Diepeningen AD, Dolatabadi S, Moreno LF, Casaregola S, Mallet S, Jacques N, Roscini L, Egidi E, Bizet C, Garcia-Hermoso D, Martín MP, Deng S, Groenewald JZ, Boekhout T, De Beer ZW, Barnes I, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ, De Hoog GS, Crous PW, Lewis CT, Hambleton S, Moussa TAA, Al-Zahrani HS, Almaghrabi OA, Louis-Seize G, Assabgui R, McCormick W, Omer G, Dukik K, Cardinali G, Eberhardt U, De Vries M, Robert V. (2015) One fungus, which genes? Development and assessment of universal primers for potential secondary fungal DNA barcodes. Persoonia 35:242-263. 10.3767/003158515X689135
Musvuugwa T, De Beer ZW, Duong T, Dreyer L, Oberlander K, Roets F. (2015) New species of Ophiostomatales from Scolytinae and Platypodinae beetles in the Cape Floristic Region, including the discovery of the sexual state of Raffaelea. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 108(4):933-950. 10.1007/s10482-015-0547-7
Wingfield BD, Ades PK, Al-Naemi FA, Beirn LA, Bihon W, Crouch JA, De Beer ZW, De Vos L, Duong TA, Fields CJ, Fourie G, Kanzi AM, Malapi-Wight M, Pethybridge SJ, Radwan O, Rendon G, Slippers B, Santana QC, Steenkamp ET, Taylor PWJ, Vaghefi N, Van der Merwe NA, Veltri D, Wingfield MJ. (2015) IMA Genome-F 4. Draft genome sequences of Chrysoporthe austroafricana, Diplodia scrobiculata, Fusarium nygamai, Leptographium lundbergii, Limonomyces culmigenus, Stagonosporopsis tanaceti, and Thielaviopsis punctulata. IMA Fungus 6(1):233-248. 10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.01.15 PDF
Osorio JA, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW, Roux J. (2015) Pseudocercospora mapelanensis sp. nov., associated with a fruit and leaf disease of Barringtonia racemosa in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 44(3):349-359. 10.1007/s13313-015-0357-4
Marincowitz S, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2015) Cornuvesica: A little known mycophilic genus with a unique biology and unexpected new species. Fungal Biology 119:615-630. 10.1016/j.funbio.2015.03.007 PDF
De Errasti A, De Beer ZW, Rajchenberg M, Coetzee MPA, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2015) Huntiella decorticans sp. nov. (Ceratocystidaceae) associated with dying Nothofagus in Patagonia. Mycologia 107(3):512-521. 10.3852/14-175
Yin M, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ, Zhou X, De Beer ZW. (2015) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Leptographium procerum complex, including L. sinense sp. nov. and L. longiconidiophorum sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 107(2):547-563. 10.1007/s10482-014-0351-9
Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Eckhardt LG, Wingfield MJ. (2015) Microsatellite and mating type markers reveal unexpected patterns of genetic diversity in the pine root-infecting fungus Grosmannia alacris. Plant Pathology 64(1):235-242. 10.1111/ppa.12231 PDF
Van der Nest MA, Beirn LA, Crouch JA, Demers JE, De Beer ZW, De Vos L, Gordon TR, Moncalvo JM, Naidoo K, Sanchez-Ramirez S, Roodt D, Santana QC, Slinksi SL, Stata M, Taerum SJ, Wilken PM, Wilson AM, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2014) Draft genomes of Amanita jacksonii, Ceratocystis albifundus, Fusarium circinatum, Huntiella omanensis, Leptographium procerum, Rutstroemia sydowiana, and Sclerotinia echinophila. IMA Fungus 5(2):473-486. 10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.02.11 PDF
De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Barnes I, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2014) Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 79:187-219. 10.1016/j.simyco.2014.10.001 PDF
Romón P, De Beer ZW, Fernández M, Diez J, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2014) Ophiostomatoid fungi including two new fungal species associated with pine root-feeding beetles in northern Spain. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 106(6):1167-1184. 10.1007/s10482-014-0286-1 PDF
Dreaden TJ, Davis JM, de Beer ZW, Ploetz RC, Soltis PS, Wingfield MJ, Smith JA. (2014) Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea. Fungal Biology 118:970-978. 10.1016/j.funbio.2014.09.001 PDF
Poulsen M, Hu H, Li C, Chen Z, Xu L, Otani S, Nygaard S, Nobre T, Klaubauf S, Schindler PM, Hauser F, Pan H, Yang Z, Sonnenberg ASM, De Beer ZW, Zhang Y, Wingfield MJ, et al.. (2014) Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite. PNAS 111(40):14500-14505. 10.1073/pnas.1319718111 PDF
Mbenoun M, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Roux J. (2014) Reconsidering species boundaries in the Ceratocystis paradoxa complex, including a new species from oil palm and cacao in Cameroon. Mycologia 106(4):757-784. 10.3852/13-298 PDF
Schoch CL, Robbertse B, Robert V, Duong V, Cardinali G, Irinyi L, Meyer W, Nilsson RH, Hughes K, Miller AN, Kirk PM, Abarenkov K, Aime MC, Ariyawansa HA, Bidartondo M, Boekhout T, Buyck B, Cai Q, Chen LJ, Crespo A, Crous PW, Damm U, De Beer ZW, Dentinger BTM, Divakar PK, Dueñas M, Feau N, Fliegerova K, García MA, Griffith GW, Groenewald JZ, Groenewald M, Gryzenhout M, Guo L, Hambleton S, Hamelin R, Hansen K, Hofstetter V, Houbraken J, Hyde K, Johnston PR, Karunarathna SC, Kõljalg U, Kovács GM, Kraichak E, Krizsan K, Larssen K-H, Leavitt S, Letcher PM, Liimatainen K, Liu J-K, Lodge JD, Luangsa-ard JJ, Lumbsch HT, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Manamgoda D, Martín MP, Minnis A, Mulè G, Nakasone KK, Niskanen T, Olariaga I, Papp T, Petkovits T, Pino-Bodas R, Powell MJ, Raja HA, Redecker D, Seifert KA, Shrestha B, Stenroos S, Stielow B, Suh S-O, Tanaka K, Tedersoo L, Telleria MT, Udayanga D, Untereiner WA, Uribeondo JD, Vágvölgyi C, Visagie C, Walker DM, Weir BS, Weiß M, Wen-Ying Z, Wijayawardene NN, Wingfield MJ, et al.. (2014) Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi. Database 2014:1-22. 10.1093/database/bau061 PDF
Wilken PM, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD. (2014) DNA loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata mating locus results in self-sterility. PLoS ONE 9(3):e92180. 10.1371/journal.pone.0092180 PDF
Romón P, De Beer ZW, Zhou XD, Duong TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2014) Multigene phylogenies of Ophiostomataceae associated with Monterey pine bark beetles in Spain reveal three new fungal species. Mycologia 106(1):119-132. 10.3852/13-073 PDF
Hujslová M, Kubátová A, Kostovčík M, Blanchette R, de Beer ZW, Chudíčková M, Kolařík M. (2014) Three new genera of fungi from extremely acidic soils. Mycological Progress 13(3):819-831. 10.1007/s11557-014-0965-3
Wilken PM, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD. (2013) Draft nuclear genome sequence for the plant pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata. IMA Fungus 4:357-358. 10.5598/imafungus.2013.04.02.14 PDF
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Guarro J, Cheewangkoon R, van der Bank M, Swart WJ, Stchigel AM, Cano-Lira JF, Roux J, Madrid H, Damm U, Wood AR, Shuttleworth LA, Hodges CS, Munster M, de Jesús Yáñez-Morales M, Zúñiga-Estrada L, Cruywagen EM, de Hoog GS, Silvera C, Najafzadeh J, Davison EM, Davison PJN, Barrett MD, Barrett RL, Manamgoda DS, Minnis AM, Kleczewski NM, Luke Flory S, Castlebury LA, Clay K, Hyde KD, Maússe-Sitoe SND, Chen S, Lechat C, Hairaud M, Lesage-Meessen L, Pawłowska J, Wilk M, Śliwińska-Wyrzychowska A, Mętrak M, Wrzosek M, Pavlic-Zupanc D, Maleme HM, Slippers B, MacCormack WP, Archuvy DI, Grünwald NJ, Teresa Tellería M, Dueñas M, Martín MP, Marincowitz S, de Beer ZW, et al. (2013) Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213. Persoonia 31:188-295. 10.3767/003158513X675925 PDF
Taerum SJ, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Gillette N, Sun J, Owen DR, Wingfield MJ. (2013) Large shift in symbiont assemblage in the invasive red turpentine beetle. PLoS ONE 8(10):e78126. 10.1126/science.aac6674 PDF
Ploetz RC, Hulcr J, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW. (2013) Destructive tree diseases that are associated with ambrosia and bark beetles: Black swan events in tree pathology?. Plant Disease 95(7):856-872. 10.1094/pdis-01-13-0056-fe PDF
Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2013) Characterization of the mating-type genes in Leptographium procerum and Leptographium profanum. Fungal Biology 117(6):411-421. 10.1016/j.funbio.2013.04.005 PDF
Hawksworth DL, McNeill J, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2013) Names of fungal species with the same epithet applied to different morphs: how to treat them. IMA Fungus 4(1):53-56. 10.5598/imafungus.2013.04.01.06 PDF
Linnakoski R, De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Niemelä P, Pappinen A, Wingfield MJ. (2012) Grosmannia and Leptographium spp. associated with conifer-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia, including Leptographium taigense sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 102(2):375-399. 10.1007/s10482-012-9747-6 PDF
Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Zanzot JW, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2012) Microsatellite markers for Grosmannia alacris (Ophiostomataceae, Ascomycota) and other species in the G. serpens complex. American Journal of Botany 99(5):E216-E219. 10.3732/ajb.1100527 PDF
Wilken PM, Steenkamp ET, Hall TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2012) Both mating types in the heterothallic fungus Ophiostoma quercus contain MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes. Fungal Biology 116(3):427-437. 10.1016/j.funbio.2012.01.002 PDF
Linnakoski R, De Beer ZW, Niemelä P, Wingfield MJ. (2012) Associations of conifer-infesting bark beetles and fungi in Fennoscandia. Insects 3(1):200-227. 10.3390/insects3010200 PDF
Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Slippers B, Wingfield BD, Groenewald JZ, Lombard L, Crous PW. (2012) One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology 13(6):604-613. 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00768.x PDF
Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2012) Phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the Grosmannia serpens complex. Mycologia 104(3):715-732. 10.3852/11-109 PDF
Kamgan Nkuekam G, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2012) A diverse assemblage of Ophiostoma species, including two new taxa on eucalypt trees in South Africa. Mycological Progress 11(2):515-533. 10.1007/s11557-011-0767-9 PDF
Schoch CL, Seifert KA, Huhndorf S, Robert V, Spouge JL, Levesque CA, Chen W, Bolchacova E, Voigt K, Crous PW, Miller AN, Wingfield MJ, Aime MC, An KD, Bai FY, Barreto RW, Begerow D, Bergeron MJ, Blackwell M, Boekhout T, Bogale M, Boonyuen N, Burgaz AR, Buyck B, Cai L, Cai Q, Cardinali G, Chaverri P, Coppins BJ, Crespo A, Cubas P, Cummings C, Damm U, De Beer ZW, De Hoog GS, Del-Prado R, Dentinger B, Dieguez-Uribeondo J, Divakar PK, Douglas B, Duenas M, Duong TA, et al. (2012) Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(16):6241-6246. 10.1073/pnas.1117018109 PDF
Hawksworth DL, Crous PW, Redhead SA, Reynolds DR, Samson RA, Seifert KA, Taylor JW, Wingfield MJ, Abaci O, Aime C, Asan A, Bai F, De Beer ZW, Begerow D, Berikten D, Boekhout T, Buchanan PK, Burgess T, Buzina W, Cai L, Cannon PF, Crane JL, Damm U, Daniel H-, Van Diepeningen AD, Druzhinina I, Dyer PS, Eberhardt U, Fell JW, Frisvad JC, Geiser DM, Geml J, Glienke C, Gräfenhan T, Groenewald JZ, Groenewald M, De Gruyter J, Guého-Kellermann E, Guo L-, Hibbett DS, Hong S, De Hoog GS, Houbraken J, Huhndorf SM, Hyde KD, Ismail A, Johnston PR, Kadaifciler DG, Kirk PM, Kõljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Lagneau PE, Lévesque CA, Liu X, Lombard L, Meyer W, Miller AN, Minter DW, Najafzadeh NJ, Norvell L, Ozerskaya SM, Öziç R, Pennycook SR, Peterson SW, Pettersson OV, Quaedvlieg W, Robert VA, Ruibal C, Schnürer J, Schroers HJ, Shivas R, Slippers B, et al. (2011) The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature. IMA Fungus 2:105-112. 10.5598/imafungus.2011.02.01.14 PDF
Grobbelaar JW, De Beer ZW, Bloomer P, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD, Wingfield BD. (2011) Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China. Mycoscience 52(2):111-118. 10.1007/s10267-010-0081-4 PDF
Kamgan Nkuekam G, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Mohammed C, Carnegie AJ, Pegg GS, Roux J. (2011) Ophiostoma species (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota), including two new taxa on eucalypts in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 59(3):283-297. 10.1071/bt10231 PDF
Six D, De Beer ZW, Duong TA, Carroll A, Wingfield MJ. (2011) Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 100(2):231-244. 10.1007/s10482-011-9582-1 PDF
Kamgan Nkuekam G, Solheim H, De Beer ZW, Grobbelaar JW, Jacobs K, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2010) Ophiostoma species, including Ophiostoma borealis sp. nov., infecting wounds of native broad-leaved trees in Norway. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 31(3):285-303. PDF
Cruywagen EM, De Beer ZW, Roux J, Wingfield MJ. (2010) Three new Graphium species from baobab trees in South Africa and Madagascar. Persoonia 25:61-71. 10.3767/003158510X550368 PDF
Grobbelaar J, De Beer ZW, Bloomer P, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2010) Ophiostoma tsotsi sp. nov., a wound-infesting fungus of hardwood trees in Africa. Mycopathologia 169(5):413-423. 10.1007/s11046-009-9267-8 PDF
Linnakoski R, De Beer ZW, Ahtiainen J, Sidorov E, Niemelä P, Pappinen A, Wingfield MJ. (2010) Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia. Persoonia 25:72-93. 10.3767/003158510X550845 PDF
Paciura D, De Beer ZW, Jacobs K, Zhou XD, Ye H, Wingfield MJ. (2010) Eight new Leptographium species associated with tree-infesting bark beetles in China. Persoonia 25:94-108. 10.3767/003158510X551097 PDF
Paciura D, Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Jacobs K, Ye H, Wingfield M. (2010) Characterisation of synnematous bark beetle-associated fungi from China, including Graphium carbonarium sp. nov. Fungal Diversity 40(1):75-88. 10.1007/s13225-009-0004-x PDF
Roets F, Wingfield BD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Dreyer LL. (2010) Two new Ophiostoma species from Protea caffra in Zambia. Persoonia 24:18-28. 10.3767/003158510X490392 PDF
Zanzot J, De Beer ZW, Eckhardt L, Wingfield M. (2010) A new Ophiostoma species from loblolly pine roots in the southeastern United States. Mycological Progress 9(3):447-457. 10.1007/s11557-010-0657-6 PDF
Bommer M, Hutter M, Stilgenbauer S, De Hoog GS, De Beer ZW, Wellinghausen N. (2009) Fatal Ophiostoma piceae infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Journal of Medical Microbiology 58(3):381-385. 10.1099/jmm.0.005280-0 PDF
Grobbelaar JW, Aghayeva DN, de Beer ZW, Bloomer P, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2009) Delimitation of Ophiostoma quercus and its synonyms using multiple gene phylogenies. Mycological Progress 8(3):221-236. 10.1007/s11557-009-0594-4 PDF
Linnakoski R, De Beer ZW, Rousi M, Solheim H, Wingfield MJ. (2009) Ophiostoma denticiliatum sp. nov. and other Ophiostoma species associated with the birch bark beetle in southern Norway. Persoonia 23:9-15. 10.3767/003158509X468038 PDF
Lu M, Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Sun J-H. (2009) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the invasive pine-infesting bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, in China. Fungal Diversity 38:133-145. PDF
Six DL, Stone WD, De Beer ZW, Woolfolk S. (2009) Ambrosiella beaveri sp. nov., associated with an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus mutilatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), in Mississippi, USA. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 96:17-29. 10.1007/s10482-009-9331-x PDF
Visser AA, Ros VID, De Beer ZW, Debets AJM, Hartog E, Kuyper TW, Læssøe T, Slippers B, Aanen DK. (2009) Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach. Molecular Ecology 18(3):553-567. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04036.x PDF
Pérez CA, De Beer ZW, Altier NA, Wingfield MJ, Blanchette RA. (2008) Discovery of the eucalypt pathogen Quambalaria eucalypti infecting a non-Eucalyptus host in Uruguay. Australasian Plant Pathology 37(6):600-604. 10.1071/AP08063 PDF
de Meyer EM, de Beer ZW, Summerbell RC, Moharram AM, de Hoog GS, Vismer HF, Wingfield MJ. (2008) Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex. Mycologia 100(4):647-661. PDF
Kamgan Nkuekam G, Jacobs K, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2008) Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma species including three new taxa, associated with wounds on native South African trees. Fungal Diversity 29:37-59. PDF
Kamgan Nkuekam G, Jacobs K, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2008) Pesotum australi sp. nov. and Ophiostoma quercus associated with Acacia mearnsii trees in Australia and Uganda, respectively. Australasian Plant Pathology 37(4):406-416. 10.1071/AP08027 PDF
Linnakoski R, De Beer ZW, Rousi M, Niemelä P, Pappinen A, Wingfield MJ. (2008) Fungi including Ophiostoma karelicum sp. nov., associated with Scolytus ratzeburgi infesting birch in Finland and Russia. Mycological Research 112(12):1475-1488. 10.1016/j.mycres.2008.06.007 PDF
Roets F, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Crous PW, Dreyer LL. (2008) Ophiostoma gemellus and Sporothrix variecibatus from mites infesting Protea infructescences in South Africa. Mycologia 100(3):496-510. 10.3852/07-181R PDF
Aanen DK, De Beer ZW. (2007) Farming fungi: termites show the way. Quest 3:22-25. PDF
Aanen D, Ros V, de Fine Licht H, Mitchell J, de Beer ZW, Slippers B, Rouland-LeFevre C, Boomsma J. (2007) Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:115. 10.1186/1471-2148-7-115 PDF
Zhou X, Burgess TI, De Beer ZW, Lieutier F, Yart A, Klepzig K, Carnegie A, Portales JM, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2007) High intercontinental migration rates and population admixture in the sapstain fungus Ophiostoma ips. Molecular Ecology 16(1):89-99. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03127.x PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Xie YJ, Pegg GS, Wingfield MJ. (2007) DNA-based identification of Quambalaria pitereka causing severe leaf blight of Corymbia citriodora in China. Fungal Diversity 25:245-254. PDF
Burgess TI, Barber PA, Mohali S, Pegg G, De Beer W, Wingfield MJ. (2006) Three new Lasiodiplodia spp. from the tropics, recognized based on DNA sequence comparisons and morphology. Mycologia 98(3):423-435. 10.3852/mycologia.98.3.423 PDF
Crous PW, Rong IH, Wood A, Lee S, Glen H, Botha W, Slippers B, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Hawksworth DL. (2006) How many species of fungi are there at the tip of Africa?. Studies in Mycology 55:13-33. 10.3114/sim.55.1.13 PDF
De Beer ZW, Begerow D, Bauer R, Pegg GS, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ. (2006) Phylogeny of the Quambalariaceae fam. nov., including important Eucalyptus pathogens in South Africa and Australia. Studies in Mycology 55:289-298. 10.3114/sim.55.1.289 PDF
Roets F, De Beer ZW, Dreyer LL, Zipfel R, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ. (2006) Multi-gene phylogeny for Ophiostoma spp. reveals two new species from Protea infructescences. Studies in Mycology 55:199-212. 10.3114/sim.55.1.199 PDF
Roux J, Mthalane ZL, De Beer ZW, Eisenberg B, Wingfield MJ. (2006) Quambalaria leaf and shoot blight on Eucalyptus nitens in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 35(4):427-433. 10.1071/AP06044 PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2006) DNA sequence comparisons of Ophiostoma spp., including Ophiostoma aurorae sp. nov., associated with pine bark beetles in South Africa. Studies in Mycology 55:269-277. 10.3114/sim.55.1.75 PDF
Zipfel RD, De Beer ZW, Jacobs K, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2006) Multi-gene phylogenies define Ceratocystiopsis and Grosmannia distinct from Ophiostoma. Studies in Mycology 55:75-97. 10.3114/sim.55.1.133 PDF
Six DL, de Beer ZW, Beaver RA, Visser L, Wingfield MJ. (2005) Exotic invasive elm bark beetle, Scolytus kirschii, detected in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 101(5-6):229-232. PDF
Aghayeva DN, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Kirisits T. (2004) Two new Ophiostoma species with Sporothrix anamorphs from Austria and Azerbaijan. Mycologia 96:866-878. PDF
Geldenhuis MM, Roux J, Montenegro F, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2004) Identification and pathogenicity of Graphium and Pesotum species from machete wounds on Schizolobium parahybum in Ecuador. Fungal Diversity 15:137-151. PDF
Zhou X, De Beer ZW, Harrington TC, McNew D, Kirisits T, Wingfield MJ. (2004) Epitypification of Ophiostoma galeiforme and phylogeny of species in the O. galeiforme complex. Mycologia 96(6):1306-1315. PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Ahumada R, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2004) Ophiostoma and Ceratocystiopsis spp. associated with two pine-infesting bark beetles in Chile. Fungal Diversity 15:261-274. PDF
Zhou X, De Beer ZW, Cibrian D, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2004) Characterisation of Ophiostoma species associated with pine bark beetles from Mexico, including O. pulvinisporum sp. nov. Mycological Research 108(6):690-698. 10.1017/S0953756204009918 PDF
De Beer ZW, Harrington TC, Vismer HF, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2003) Phylogeny of the Ophiostoma stenoceras - Sporothrix schenckii complex. Mycologia 95(3):434-441. PDF
De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2003) The Ophiostoma piceae complex in the Southern Hemisphere: a phylogenetic study. Mycological Research 107(4):469-476. 10.1017/S0953756203007445 PDF
De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2003) The occurrence of Ophiostoma piliferum-like fungi on pulpwood chips and other wood sources in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99(1-2):34-36. PDF
De Beer ZW, Glen HF, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2003) Ophiostoma quercus or Ophiostoma querci?. Mycotaxon 86:211-214. PDF
Zhou XD, Burgess T, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2002) Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tree pathogen and sapstain agent, Ophiostoma ips. Molecular Ecology Notes 2(3):309-312. 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00225.x PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2002) Infection sequence and pathogenicity of Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium serpens and L. lundbergii to pines in South Africa. Fungal Diversity 10:229-240. PDF
Wingfield MJ, Slippers B, Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Govender P, Wingfield BD. (2001) Global spread of insect-associated fungi on exotic plantation pines. IUFRO World Series 11:107-114. PDF
Zhou XD, De Beer ZW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2001) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with three pine-infesting bark beetles in South Africa. Sydowia 53(2):290-300. PDF