Macadamia is one of the fastest growing agricultural industries in the country and is of economic importance to South Africa. The industry is however hampered by a number of pests and diseases which can cause major economic loss, both in terms of yield as well as nut quality. The industry currently relies heavily on the use of commercially available pesticides and chemicals for pest and disease control. There is, however, growing concern regarding continuous build-up of resistance, and the long-term sustainability of the industry is dependent on the use of integrated pest management. Integrated pest management systems aim to prevent or lower pest and disease incidence by employing multiple strategies. These strategies may range from the introduction of natural enemies or biological control, disruption of the pest’s reproductive systems, planting of resistant cultivars as well as timely application of chemicals or pesticides. Effective implementation of these are built on information regarding pest identity, population dynamics, disease cycle, infection biology, epidemiology and spread. Such information, however, is often lacking or not well understood. The current research focus areas of the MPP will aim to fill these knowledge gaps. 

Collaborations

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Telephone +27 (12) 420-3854
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Postal Address

Dr Gerda Fourie

74 Lunnon Street,
University of Pretoria
PRETORIA
0002

Funding

SAMACNRF

New Publications

Geiser DM, Al-Hatmi A, Aoki T, Arie T, Balmas V, Barnes I, Bergstrom GC, Bhattacharyya MKK, Blomquist CL, Bowden R, Brankovics B, Brown DW, Burgess LW, Bushley K, Busman M, Cano-Lira JF, Carrillo JD, Chang HX, Chen CY, Chen W, Chilvers MI, Chulze SN, Coleman JJ, Cuomo CA, de Beer ZW, de Hoog GS, Del Castillo-Múnera J, Del Ponte E, Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Di Pietro A, Edel-Hermann V, Elmer WH, Epstein L, Eskalen A, Esposto MC, Everts KL, Fernández-Pavía SP, da Silva GF, Foroud NA, Fourie G, Frandsen RJN, Freeman S, Freitag M, Frenkel O, Fuller KK, Gagkaeva T, Gardiner DM, Glenn AE, Gold S, Gordon T, Gregory NF, Gryzenhout M, Guarro J, Gugino B, Gutiérrez S, Hammond-Kosack K, Harris LJ, Homa M, Hong CF, Hornok L, Huang JW, Ilkit M, Jacobs A, Jacobs K, Jiang C, Jimenez-Gasco MDM, Kang S, Kasson MT, Kazan K, Kennell JC, Kim H, Kistler HC, Kuldau GA, Kulik T, Kurzai O, Laraba I, Laurence MH, Lee TY, Lee YW, Lee YH, Leslie JF, Liew ECY, Lofton LW, Logrieco A, Sánchez López-Berges M, Luque AG, Lysøe E, Ma LJ, Marra RE, Martin FN, May SR, McCormick S, McGee CT, Meis JF, Migheli Q, Mohamed Nor NMI, Monod M, Moretti A, Mostert D, Mulé G, Munaut F, Munkvold GP, Nicholson P, Nucci M, O'Donnell K, Pasquali M, Pfenning LH, Prigitano A, Proctor R, Ranque S, Rehner S, Rep M, Rodríguez-Alvarado G, Rose LJ, Roth MG, Ruiz-Roldán C, Saleh AA, Salleh B, Sang H, Scandiani M, Scauflaire J, Schmale D 3, Short DP, Šišić A, Smith J, Smyth CW, Son H, Spahr E, Stajich JE, Steenkamp E, Steinberg C, Subramaniam R, Suga H, Summerell BA, Susca A, Swett CL, Toomajian C, Torres-Cruz TJ, Tortorano AM, Urban M, Vaillancourt LJ, Vallad GE, van der Lee T, Vanderpool D, van Diepeningen AD, Vaughan M, Venter E, Vermeulen M, Verweij PE, Viljoen A, Waalwijk C, Wallace EC, Walther G, Wang J, Ward T, Wickes B, Wiederhold NP, Wingfield MJ, Wood AKM, Xu JR, Yang XB, Yli-Matilla T, Yun SH, Zakaria L, Zhang H, Zhang N, Zhang S, Zhang X. (2020) Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1 kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic Fusarium that includes the Fusarium solani Species Complex. Phytopathology 10.1094/PHYTO-08-20-0330-LE
Mufamadi Z, Fourie G, Willis-Boyum A, van den Berg N. (2020) Husk rot disease: causal agents and disease epidemiology. SAMAC Journal PDF
Pal E, Hurley BP, Slippers B, Fourie G. (2020) Progress towards characterisation of pheromones of Bathycoelia distincta. SAMAC Journal PDF
Smith A, Hurley BP, Slippers B, Fourie G. (2020) Life stage characterisation of Thaumatotibia batrachopa on an artificial diet. SAMAC Journal PDF
Twiddy D, de Beer ZW, Fourie G. (2020) The PSHB and its potential impact on the South African macadamia Industry. SAMAC Journal PDF
Twiddy D, Fell S, de Beer ZW, Fourie G. (2020) Screening for susceptibility of Macadamia to E. fornicatus and its fungal symbiont Fusarium euwallaceae. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1555-SC
Fourie A, de Jonge R, van der Nest MA, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Barnes I. (2020) Genome comparisons suggest an association between Ceratocystis host adaptations and effector clusters in unique transposable element families. 143:103433. 10.1016/j.fgb.2020.103433
Drenkhan R, Ganley B, Martin-Garcia J, Vahalik P, Adamson K, Adamcikova K, Ahumada R, Blank L, Braganca H, Capretti P, Capretti P, Cleary M, Cornejo C, Davydenko K, Diez J, Lehtiharvi H, Dvorak M, Enderle R, Fourie G, Georgieva M, Ghelardini L, Hantula J, Ioos R, Iturritxa E, Kanetis L, Karpun N, Koltay A, Landera E, Markovskaja S, Mesanza N, Milenkovic I, Musolin D, Musolin D, Nikolaou K, Nowakowske J, Ogris N, Oskay F, Oszaka T, Papazova-Anakieva I, Paraschiv M, Pasquali M, Pecori F, Rafoss T, Raitelaityte K, Raposo R, Robin C, Rodas C, Santini A, Sanz-Ros A, Selikhovkin A, Solla A, Soukainen M, Soulioti N, Steenkamp E, Tsopelas P, Vemic A, Vettraino A, Wingfield M, Woodward S, Zamora-Ballesteros C, Mullet M. (2020) Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of Pine Pitch Canker. Forests 11(724):1-38. 10.3390/f11070724
Roux J, Wingfield MJ, Fourie A, Noeth K, Barnes I. (2020) Ceratocystis wilt on Eucalyptus: first record from South Africa. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science 10.2989/20702620.2019.1686687
Li JQ, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Barnes I, Fourie A, Crous PW, Chen SF. (2020) Mating genes in Calonectria and evidence for a heterothallic ancestral state . Persoonia 45:163-176. 10.3767/persoonia.2020.45.06 PDF
Wingfield BD, van Heerden CJ, van der Nest MA, Steenkamp ET, Roets F, Geiser DM, Duong TA, Dreyer LL, Coetzee MPA, Barnes I, Aylward J, Bushula-Njah VS, Simpson MC, Fourie A, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Draft genome sequences of Fusarium xylarioides, Teratosphaeria gauchensis and T. zuluensis and genome annotation for Ceratocystis fimbriata. IMA Fungus 10(13) 10.1186/s43008-019-0013-7 PDF
Vainio EJ, Bezos D, Braganca H, Cleary M, Fourie G, Georgieva M, Ghelardini L, Hunnunen S, Ioos R, Martin-Garcia J, Martinez-Alvarez P, Mullet M, Oszako T, Papazova-Anakieve I, Piskur B, Romeralo C, Sanz-Ros A, Steenkamp ET, Tubby K, Wingfield MJ, Diez JJ. (2019) Sampling and detection strategies for the Pine Pitch Canker (PPC) disease pathogen Fusarium circinatum in Europe. Forests 10(723):1-28. 10.3390/f10090723 PDF
Fourie A, van der Nest MA, De Vos L, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Barnes I. (2019) QTL mapping of mycelial growth and aggressiveness to distinct hosts in Ceratocystis pathogens. Fungal Genetics and Biology 131:103242. 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.103242 PDF
Ioos R, Aloi F, Piskur B, Guinet C, Mullet M, Berbegal M, Braganca H, Cacciola SO, Oskay F, Cornejo C, Adamson K, Douanla-Meli C, Kacergius A, Martinez-Alvarez P, Nowakowska JA, Luchi N, Vettraino AM, Ahumada R, Pasquali M, Fourie G, Kanetis L, Alves A, Ghelardini L, Dvorak M, Sanz-Ros A, Diez JJ, Baskarathevan J, Aguayo J. (2019) Transferability of PCR-based diagnostic protocols: An international collaborative case study assessing protocols targeting the quarantine pine pathogen Fusarium circinatum. Scientific Reports 10.1038/s41598-019-44672-8
Palmer M, Venter SN, McTaggart AR, Coetzee MPA, Van Wyk S, Avontuur JR, Beukes CW, Fourie G, Santana QC, Van der Nest MA, Blom J, Steenkamp ET. (2019) The synergistic effect of concatenation in phylogenomics: the case in Pantoea. PeerJ 10.7717/peerj.6698 PDF
Bradshaw RE, Sim AD, Chettri P, Dupont P-Y, Guo Y, Hunziker L, McDougal RL, van der Nest A, Fourie A, Wheeler D, Cox MP, Barnes I. (2019) Global population genomics of the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum reveal chromosome duplications in high dothistromin-producing strains. Molecular Plant Pathology 20(6):784-799. 10.1111/mpp.12791
Martın-Garcia J, Zas R, Solla A, Woodward S, Hantula J, Vainio EJ, Mullett M, Morales-Rodrıguez M, Vannini A, Martınez-Alvarez P, Pinto G, Alves A, Amaral J, Wingfield MJ, Fourie G, Steenkamp ET, Ahumada R, Sera B, Sanz-Ros AV, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Iturritxa E, Gordon TR , Diez JJ. (2019) Environmentally friendly methods for controlling pine pitch canker . Plant Pathology 10(723):1-28. 10.1111/ppa.13009 PDF
Van den Berg N, Du Toit M, Morgan SW, Fourie G, De Beer ZW. (2019) First Report of Fusarium euwallaceae on Persea americana in South Africa. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1818-PDN
Barnes I, Fourie A, Wingfield MJ, Harrington TC, McNew DL, Sugiyama LS, Luiz BC, Heller WP, Keith LM. (2018) New Ceratocystis species associated with rapid death of Metrosideros polymorpha in Hawai`i. Persoonia 40:154–181. 10.3767/persoonia.2018.40.07 PDF
Fourie A, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, van der Nest MA, Loots MT, Barnes I. (2018) Inheritance of phenotypic traits in the progeny of a Ceratocystis interspecific cross. Fungal Biology 122:717-729. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.03.001 PDF
Fourie G, van der Merwe NA, Wingfield BD, Bogale M, Wingfield MJ, Steenkamp ET. (2018) Mitochondrial introgression and interspecies recombination in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. IMA Fungus 9(1):37-48. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.04
Wingfield BD, Berger DK, Steenkamp ET, Lim H-J, Duong TA, Bluhm BH, De Beer ZW, De Vos L, Fourie G, Naidoo K, Olivier NA, Lin Y, Van der Peer Y, Joubert F, Crampton BG, Swart V, Soal N, Tatham C, Van der Nest MA, Van der Merwe NA, Van Wyk S, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ. (2017) IMA Genome-F 8 Draft genome of Cercospora zeina, Fusarium pininemorale, Hawksworthiomyces lignivorus, Huntiella decipiens and Ophiostoma ips. IMA Fungus 8 (2):385‑396. 10.5598/imafungus.2017.08.02.10 PDF
Phasha MM, Wingfield BD, Coetzee MPA, Santana QC, Fourie G, Steenkamp ET. (2017) Architecture and distribution of introns in core genes of four Fusarium species. G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics 7(11):3809-3820. 10.1534/g3.117.300344
Mostert D, Molina AB, Daniells J, Fourie G, Hermanto C, Chao C-P, Fabregar E, Sinohin VG, Hossain MDS, Masdek N, Visarto P, Rajapakse C, Thanh DT, Thangavelu R, Li C, Yi G, Wei Y, Mostert L, Viljoen A. (2017) The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia. PLoS ONE 12(7):24. 10.1371/journal.pone.0181630
Fourie A, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Thu PQ, Barnes I. (2016) A possible centre of diversity in South East Asia for the tree pathogen, Ceratocystis manginecans. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 41:73-83. 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.03.011 PDF
Wingfield BD, Ades PK, Al-Naemi FA, Beirn LA, Bihon W, Crouch JA, De Beer ZW, De Vos L, Duong TA, Fields CJ, Fourie G, Kanzi AM, Malapi-Wight M, Pethybridge SJ, Radwan O, Rendon G, Slippers B, Santana QC, Steenkamp ET, Taylor PWJ, Vaghefi N, Van der Merwe NA, Veltri D, Wingfield MJ. (2015) IMA Genome-F 4. Draft genome sequences of Chrysoporthe austroafricana, Diplodia scrobiculata, Fusarium nygamai, Leptographium lundbergii, Limonomyces culmigenus, Stagonosporopsis tanaceti, and Thielaviopsis punctulata. IMA Fungus 6(1):233-248. 10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.01.15 PDF
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Guarro J, Hernandez-Restrepo M, Sutton DA, Acharya K, Barber PA, Boekhout T, Dimitrov RA, Duenas M, Dutta AK, Gene J, Gouliamova DE, Groenewald M, Lombard L, Morozova OV, Sarkar J, Smith MTh, Stchigel AM, Wiederhold NP, Alexandrova AV, Antelmi I, Armengol J, Barnes I, Cano-Lira JF, Castaneda Ruiz RF, Contu M, Courtecuisse PrR, Da Silveira AL, Decock CA, De Goes A, Edathodu J, Ercole E, Firmino AC, Fourie A, Fournier J, Furtado EL, Geering ADW, Gershenzon J, Giraldo A, Gramaje D, Hammerbacher A, He X-L, Haryadi D, Khemmuk W, Kovalenko AE, Krawczynski R, Laich F, Lechat C, Lopes UP, Madrid H, Malysheva EF, Marin-Felix Y, Martin MP, Mostert L, Nigro F, Pereira OL, Picillo B, Pinho DB, Popov ES, Rodas Pelaez CA, Rooney-Latham S, Sandoval-Denis M, Shivas RG, Silva V, Stoilova-Disheva MM, Telleria MT, Ullah C, Unsicker SB, Van der Merwe NA, Vizzini A, Wagner H-G, Wong PTW, Wood AR, Groenewald JZ. (2015) Fungal Planet description sheets: 320–370. Persoonia 34:167-266. 10.3767/003158515X688433 PDF
Fourie A, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Barnes I. (2015) Molecular markers delimit cryptic species in Ceratocystis sensu stricto. Mycological Progress 14(1):1-18. 10.1007/s11557-014-1020-0 PDF
De Vos L, Steenkamp ET, Martin SH, Santana QC, Fourie G, Van der Merwe NA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfied BD. (2014) Genome-wide macrosynteny among Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms. PLoS ONE 9(12):e114682. 10.1371/journal.pone.0114682 PDF
Morris AR, Fourie G, Greyling I, Steenkamp ET, Jones NB. (2014) Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 76(3):177-187. 10.2989/20702620.2014.957491
Swett CL, Porter B, Fourie G, Steenkamp ET, Gordon TR, Wingfield MJ. (2014) Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 76(3):161-166. 10.2989/20702620.2014.916087 PDF
Jones NB, Ford CM, Light ME, Nadel RL, Greyling I, Fourie G, Wingfield MJ, Morris AR. (2014) Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings after inoculation with Fusarium circinatum. Southern Forests 76(3):125-136. 10.2989/20702620.2014.916503 PDF
Fourie G, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Jones NB, Morris AR, Steenkamp ET. (2014) Culture-independent detection and quantification of Fusarium circinatum in a pine-producing seedling nursery. Southern Forests 76(3):137-143. 10.2989/20702620.2014.899058 PDF
Fourie G, van der Merwe NA, Wingfield BD, Bogale M, Tudzynski B, Wingfield MJ, Steenkamp ET. (2013) Evidence for inter-specific recombination among the mitochondrial genomes of Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. BMC Genomics 14:605. 10.1186/1471-2164-14-605 PDF
Wingfield BD, Steenkamp ET, Santana QC, Coetzee MPA, Bam S, Barnes I, Beukes CW, Chane W-Y, de Vos L, Fourie G, Friend M, Gordon TR, Herron DA, Holt C, Korf I, Kvas M, Martin SH, Mlonyeni XO, Naidoo K, Phasha MM, Postma A, Reva O, Roos H, Simpson M, Slinski S, Slippers B, Sutherland R, van der Merwe NA, van der Nest MA, Venter SNV, Wilken PM, Yandell M, Zipfel R, Wingfield MJ. (2012) First fungal genome sequence from Africa: a preliminary analysis. South African Journal of Science 108:104-122. 10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.537 PDF
Fourie G, Steenkamp ET, Ploetz RC, Gordon TR, Viljoen A. (2011) Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11:533-542. 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.01.012 PDF
Visser M, Gordon TR, Fourie G, Viljoen A. (2010) Characterisation of South African isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense from Cavendish bananas. South African Journal of Science 106:1-6. PDF
Fourie G, Steenkamp ET, Gordon TR, Viljoen A. (2009) Evolutionary Relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Vegetative Compatibility Groups. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(14):4770-4781. 10.1128/AEM.00370-09 PDF
Molina A, Fabregar E, Sinohin VG, Ganjun Y, Fourie G, Viljoen A. (2008) Recent occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubense tropical race 4 in Asia. Acta Horticulturae 828:273-282.
Slippers B, Fourie G, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2004) Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea. Mycologia 96(5):1030-1041. PDF
Slippers B, Fourie G, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Carnegie AJ, Wingfield MJ. (2004) Speciation and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. on native and introduced Eucalyptus trees in Australia and South Africa. Studies in Mycology 50:343-358. PDF