The FABI International Seminar Series
In light of the extraordinary circumstances experienced around the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most, if not all, scientific meetings have been cancelled for the foreseeable future. One of the many benefits of these meetings is science engagement.
The FABI International Seminar Series provides an opportunity for our research community to continue discussions on various topics. Our guest speakers will cover a wide range of topics related to plant health. Our monthly virtual seminars are open to all registered participants ensuring a wide audience.
Please fill in the registration form on the left menu of this page should you be interested in attending these events. You will be contact via email provided with relevant information on the seminar for each month. If you wish to contribute to this initiative by offering to present your research, please contact Dr Neriman Yilmaz or Dr Markus Wilken.
Upcoming seminar: 30 June 2022 - Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Speaker: Prof. Keith Seifert, Canada
Title: In the right place at the right time: Three “microfungi” that changed the world
Please fill in the registration form below should you wish to attend the seminars in The FABI International Seminar Series for 2022. You will be provided with information regarding the seminar for each month.
Speaker: Prof. Keith Seifert
Title: In the right place at the right time: Three “microfungi” that changed the world
Date: 30 June 2022 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: To celebrate the publication of “The Hidden Kingdom of Fungi,” my recent book for general readers, I will present three stories in depth to show the profound effects of fungi (or “phungi”) can have on human affairs. We will follow the path of the Great Potato Famine from its origins to the Irish diaspora of millions of victims to Canada and the USA, Australia and New Zealand, and South Africa. We will look at the discovery of penicillin and its impacts on World War II and conflicting concepts of intellectual property. Then we will consider the emergence of aflatoxin as a major threat to public health, especially in the developing world. These stories show that the impacts of fungi and fungal research extend far beyond the corridors of science. They also challenge the “eureka”’ or “lone genius” stereotype of discovery, and illustrate that national interests often clash with international cooperation in science. An alternative model of discovery, sometimes called the “adjacent possible,” explains why certain kinds of discoveries occur at a specific time and place.
Biography: For more than 40 years, Canadian mycologist Keith Seifert specialized in the identification and classification of microscopic fungi producing toxins in crops and foods. He worked as a Research Scientist for Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada in Ottawa from 1990-2019. His academic publications include >250 scientific papers and six books (including two co-edited with Mike Wingfield). He retired from research in 2019 to write about interactions between science, the arts, history and society.
Speaker: Dr. Claudia Coleine
Title: Microbiomes from extreme environments: challenges to thrive in the most prohibitive conditions
Date: 26 May 2022 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Extreme environments, defined from our anthropocentric view, are typically devoid of macro life forms and are instead inhabited predominantly by highly adapted and specialized microorganisms, namely extreme-tolerant and extremophiles that are able to tolerate and even thrive in the most prohibitive conditions (e.g. space and Martian simulated conditions). The discovery and persistence of these organisms have reshaped current concepts regarding the limits of life, for as we know it, on our planet. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, life is limited to Earth but the possibility of life elsewhere in the Universe has fascinated humankind for ages. Unearthing terrestrial extreme microbiomes will be integral to provide the foundational principles needed to predict what sort of Earth-like organisms we might find in the Solar System and beyond, and to understand the future and origins of life on Earth.
Biography: Dr. Claudia Coleine received her bachelor's, master's and PhD degrees from University of Tuscia, Italy. During her postdoctoral research, she was Principal Investigator of a project funded by Italian National Program for Antarctic Research. She is currently a Marie Curie Global Fellow, whose the project will focus on untangling the microbiome of US drylands and defining those physico-chemical conditions that still allow active life, even at the extremely low water regimes (i.e. hyperarid regions), in an era of global warming and rapid desertification.
Speaker: Dr. Svetlana Y. Folimonova
Title: Understanding cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus: our quest for the answer to a century-old question
Date: 28 April 2022 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is recognized as the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus. During the past century, CTV-induced epidemics killed more than 100 million citrus trees in North and South America and the Mediterranean, and the virus continues to threaten citrus production in many regions, including South Africa. One of the main focuses of our research is understanding the mechanism of viral cross-protection (also referred to as superinfection exclusion), a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely-related virus. The phenomenon has been observed for viruses in various systems, including viruses that represent important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. However, its mechanism is not well understood. Importantly, with CTV, cross-protection is the only means to protect citrus orchards against aggressive virus isolates that induce the stem pitting disease. Our research brought about the understanding of how CTV variants interact and exclude each other. The data we have obtained showed that cross-protection by CTV cannot be explained by the mechanisms described previously and is conferred by a novel mechanism understanding of which opens up new avenues to manage virus diseases.
Biography: Dr. Svetlana Y. Folimonova received her PhD in Microbiology from Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. She held a postdoctoral position at the S. R. Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma and a postdoctoral position at the University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida. Dr. Folimonova was appointed Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, in 2012. In 2016, she was promoted to Associate Professor. Dr. Folimonova’s research program focuses on viral and bacterial pathogens of citrus, with the main emphasis on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a causal agent of citrus greening [Huanglongbing (HLB)]. Her primary research effort is concentrated on understanding the mechanisms of the infection process, host responses to the pathogens, and developing management strategies for these diseases. In 2020, Dr. Folimonova received a prestigious Syngenta Crop Protection Award from the American Phytopathological Society for her outstanding contributions to research on CTV and, specifically, for the elucidation of the mechanism of the CTV superinfection exclusion and for the research accomplishments on the development of the CTV-based vectors for expression of antimicrobial proteins for management of citrus greening. Dr. Folimonova also serves as Councilor for Plant Virology at the American Society for Virology.
Speaker: Dr. Jonàs Oliva
Title: Functional Ecology of Forest Disease
Date: 31 March 2022 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Global change is pressing forest pathologists to solve increasingly complex problems. We argue that functional ecology may help understanding interactive effects between forest pathogens and global warming, globalization, and land-use changes. Traits can be more informative about ecological functions than species inventories and may deliver a more mechanistic description of the process underlying forest disease. By using functional traits instead of species, we may be able to reduce the microbial communities to manageable categories with predictive power. Building up functional databases for pathogenicity is key to implementing these approaches. In the seminar, I will explain some guidelines and examples on how to develop a functional pathology approach to resolve burning issues on tree disease.
Biography: I am interested in forest pathogens and their role in forest ecosystems. After my PhD, I spend nearly 10 years at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala (Sweden) working in Jan Stenlid's group. Currently, I am a "Ramón y Cajal" researcher at UdL where I am coordinating an emerging research group. My current projects focus on plant-soil feedbacks and the link between climate change and altitudinal and latitudinal range expansions of forest pathogens. We are also interested in root rot pathogens of the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria both from the point of view of their economic impact but also on their role as disturbing agents affecting forest dynamics. Other projects of the group relate to the interaction between drought stress and pathogens like Diplodia sapinea or Heterobasidion annosum, and how they lead to tree mortality. Recently, we have started working on pathogens of the genus Phytophthora because of with their impact on alder stands near river ecosystems, but also as model organisms to study drivers of invasion such as global warming or intercontinental trade of infected plants.
Speaker: Dr. Alistair McTaggart
Title: Rust, sex, magic
Date: 22 February 2022 Time: 12:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Alistair will share progress from three of his current research projects on rust fungi, sexual reproduction and hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Rust: Myrtle rust is an invasive pathogen of Myrtaceae in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, with impacts to culturally significant and endangered trees. We have tested the mechanisms and applicability of RNA interference in rust fungi to show it inhibits germination and formation of appressoria and reduces infection in planta.
Sex: We showed the boundaries of sexual reproduction are informative for species-rank delimitation in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Our new research examines the frequency of horizontal exchange among species in the complex and whether accessory and dispensable genes support taxonomic hypotheses based on the core genome.
Magic: Research on psilocybin has been fast-tracked to study its benefits for human mental health. Progress in treatments of psilocybin are based on Psilocybe cyanescens, which is likely an introduced species in the northern hemisphere. Our project will determine the biodiversity and endemicity of hallucinogenic mushrooms in Australia, and test a hypothesis that Australia is the centre of origin of P. cyanescens. This project is the first to establish a living collection of Psilocybe in Australia, with a vision to catalyse future research in the innovations of psilocybin.
Biography: Alistair studies the evolution and identification of fungi. His current research on biodiversity of magic mushrooms (Psilocybe) in Australia aims to determine which species are native and to conserve Australian biological heritage against habitat loss. His previous post-doctoral research was on molecular barcoding, phylogenetics and phylogenomics of fungi at the University of Pretoria (South Africa), Louisiana State University (USA), and the University of Queensland (Australia).
Speaker: Dr. Nicolas Langlade
Title: Multi-scale modelling to predict and understand sunflower tolerance to abiotic stresses and uses of high-throughput phenotyping.
Date: 25 November 20201 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: I will present an integrative approach conducted within the SUNRISE project that combines crop modelling and quantitative genetics to understand and predict drought tolerance. I will also exemplify how we took advantage of the high-throughput phenotyping platforms available at Phenotoul.
Biography: I started my career in Switzerland (doctorate at the University of Neuchâtel) with E. Martinoia then in the United Kingdom (John Innes Center, Norwich), with E. Coen, focusing on the basics genetics of physiological and morphological adaptations of plants to environmental constraints and evolutionary forces. Recruited in 2006 at INRA as a post-doctorate researcher at the Plant Reproduction and Development Laboratory (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon) with Peter Rogowsky, I briefly worked on the development of corn kernels.
I joined LIPME (INRAE Occitanie Toulouse) as senior researcher in 2007 and research director since 2016. I lead the ASTR research team (Abiotic Stress Tolerance in sunfloweR) which aims at identifying the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation of sunflower to abiotic constraints (drought and cold) at physiological and evolutionary levels.
Since my recruitment at LIPME, I have been setting up research infrastructures for sunflowers, for example with the sunflower building and cultivation spaces at LIPME, and more recently the creation of the high-throughput phenotyping infrastructure Phenotoul (www.inrae.fr/phenotoul) which, since 2019, brings together the TPMP platforms under controlled conditions, Heliaphen under semi-controlled conditions and Agrophen in the field.
In addition, I am strongly committed to the animation of the French sunflower research community through the coordination of the SUNRISE Investment for the Future Project, the animation of the sunflower technical commission of Promosol, the participation in the activities of the variety registration institution CTPS (in the Sunflower-Soy section and in the VATE). Internationally, I participate to the board of the International Sunflower Association (ISA) and on the scientific committee of the ICSG (International Consortium for Sunflower Genomics).
Through various ANR projects (Sunyfuel (2008-2011), Région-FUI Oleosol (2009-2013), the ICSG consortium then SUNRISE (2012-2020) I have actively developed genetic and genomic tools for the French and international community on sunflower, including the first sunflower reference genomic sequence, bioinformatic portals and numerous populations of genetic material (www.heliagene.org).
This phenotyping know-how and genomic and genetic resources constitute a strong basis for my research activities in which I implement approaches of quantitative genetics, systems biology and phenotypic modeling in a synergy between public and private research.
Speaker: Dr. Charissa de Bekker
Title: What makes a zombie ant tick? Connecting fungal genomes with ant behavioural phenomes in Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani and its carpenter ant host.
Date: 28 October 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Transmission-promoting summiting behaviours is a common parasitic manipulation, observed in a wide range of insect species, including those that get infected by fungi. Yet, the molecular mechanisms that these fungal parasites evolved to hijack host behaviours and the affected host pathways that give rise to altered behavioural phenotypes remain largely unknown. To provide a mechanistic perspective, we use carpenter ants and their manipulating Ophiocordyceps fungi as a model in which we combine comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics, with quantitative behavioral analyses, and functional genetics assays. As such, we have identified various candidate fungal compounds and ant host pathways that appear to be involved in the manipulated summiting of Ophiocordyceps-infected carpenter ants. These candidates are currently being tested through multiple functional genetics and behavioural assays. Additionally, through our behavioural studies we are learning how ant behaviours change in the early stages of fungal infection and that biological clocks are likely involved. As such, our integrative efforts are connecting behavioural phenotypes of infected and uninfected ants with the underlying host and fungal parasite genes that give rise to those phenotypes.
Biography: Charissa de Bekker received her bachelor's, master's and PhD degrees from Utrecht University in the Netherlands. For her postdoctoral research she first worked at The Pennsylvania State University in the US for which she was awarded a Marie Curie Fellowship. Subsequently, she moved the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Germany where she received an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship. Currently, she is an assistant professor in the Biology Department at the University of Central Florida in the US. Here, her lab continues to work on Ophiocordyceps fungi, which is funded by a National Science Foundation CAREER award.
Speaker: Dr. Damon L. Smith
Title: Using Research-based Solutions for Managing Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean
Date: 30 September 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most important diseases of soybean in the Midwest U.S. In the last 5 seasons, SSR has resulted in more than 36 million bushels of yield loss in the Midwest region alone. Management of SSR is complicated and requires a multi-pronged approach. Researchers in the Midwest U.S. have been working to refine the integrated management strategy for SSR, which includes using resistant varieties, modifying row spacing and planting population, crop rotation, and fungicide applications. In addition, researchers are developing new techniques such as smartphone-based forecasting systems and using RNAi technology to combat SSR. This presentation will outline the latest SSR research-based tools and showcase how these tools have been integrated together to improve SSR management of soybeans. The presentation will also cover some of the new technologies being developed that may eventually be used to manage SSR.
Biography: Damon Smith is an Associate Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison). Damon is also the Director of the Nutrient and Pest Management Program at UW-Madison. Damon's responsibilities include research efforts that focus on improving our understanding of the epidemiology of plant pathogens in order to develop better control recommendations for the sustainable management of field and forage crop diseases. Damon is a native of Western New York State. He earned his B.S. in Biological Sciences at the State University of New York, College at Geneseo, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from North Carolina State University. Prior to Damon's appointment at UW he was an assistant professor and extension specialist at Oklahoma State University for 5 years.
Speaker: Dr. Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Title: Mucormycosis in India
Date: 26 August 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Mucormycosis, the devastating fungal disease with high morbidity and mortality, is a serious healthcare problem in the Indian population. The disease has a high incidence among uncontrolled diabetics. Several unique features have been described for mucormycosis in India including risk factors, emergence of rare species, and isolated renal mucormycosis in young apparently healthy individuals. However, the present outbreak of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) has many new features and made an unprecedented impact in healthcare. The number of CAM cases crossed >50,000 cases from 28 of 35 provinces or union territories in India. The mortality was >40%. Though the reason of the outbreak is not clearly known; environmental factors, diabetes, high steroid therapy, and COVID-19 virus itself are considered to contribute in disease development. The outbreak has posed a formidable challenge due to limited awareness, diagnostic mycology laboratories, trained manpower, and availability of anti-Mucorales drugs. Though the rate of fresh CAM cases has come down in recent days, the recurrence of the disease is a new challenge.
- Patel A, Kaur H, Xess I, Michael JS, Savio J, Rudramurthy S, Singh R, Shastri P, Umabala P, Sardana R, Kindo A, Capoor MR, Mohan S, Muthu V, Agarwal R, Chakrabarti A. A multicentre observational study on the epidemiology, risk factors, management and outcomes of mucormycosis in India. Clin Microbiol Infect 2020; 26: 944 e949-944 e915.
- Chakrabarti A, Singh R. Mucormycosis in India: unique features. Mycoses 2014; 57 Suppl 3: 85-90.
- Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Global Epidemiology of Mucormycosis. J Fungi (Basel) 2019; 5.
- Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of mucormycosis in India. Microorganisms 2021; 9: 523
- Patel A, Agarwal R, Rudramurthy SM, Shevkani M, Xess I, Shama R, Savio J, Sethuraman N, Madan S, Shastri P, Thangaraju D, Marak RSK, Karuna T, Savaj P, Sunavala A, Gupta N, Singhal T, Muthu V, Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis: a multicenter study from India. Emerg Infect Dis 2021
Speaker: Dr. Anne Pringle
Title: The Problem of Invasive Mycorrhizal Fungi
Date: 29 July 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: The global demand for timber and pulpwood facilitates a commercial trade in wood. Plants in nature grow symbiotically with mycorrhizal fungi and foresters routinely use mycorrhizal inocula to grow trees more quickly. But inoculation has also accelerated the movement of mycorrhizal fungi among continents; forestry plantations are hotbeds of introduced fungi. Introduced fungi may escape plantations; for example, in California the death cap Amanita phalloides is spreading through local coast live oak forests while in Colombia Amanita muscaria is invading remnant forests of Quercus humboltdii. The problem of invasive, mutualist fungi is hardly discussed but invasive ectomycorrhizal species are characterized by a rich natural history of host shifts, changes in phenology and abundance, and mating system transitions. In my talk I'll focus on the potential impacts of invasive ectomycorrhizal fungi. In particular, I'll question whether it is possible for scientists to collect "baseline" data documenting fungal biodiversity. The movements of soils and fungi as undertaken by humans over the last century may have irrevocably altered local habitats to an extent that baselines are already lost.
Biography: Anne Pringle was born in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and spent her childhood traveling through Southeast Asia and West Africa. After being dragged along on one-too-many birding expeditions, she abandoned the birds for fungi. She was an undergraduate at the University of Chicago, and then completed a Ph.D. in Botany and Genetics at Duke University. After completing a Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science Fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley, she joined the faculty at Harvard University. She next moved to the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where she is now Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor in the Departments of Botany and Bacteriology. Pringle has given over 100 invited talks to academic and popular audiences in countries including China, Colombia, France, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. She has been awarded the Alexopoulos Prize for a Distinguished Early Career Mycologist (2010), the Mendelsohn Excellence in Mentoring Award from the Harvard University Graduate Student Council (2011), the Fannie Cox Prize for Excellence in Science Teaching from Harvard University (2013), and a Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Fellowship (2011-2012).Her research has been featured by the New York Times, National Public Radio, Slate, and the Wisconsin State Journal, among others. In 2019, Pringle was elected President of the Mycological Society of America.
Speaker: Dr. David Hibbett
Title: Phylogenomics of Lentinula and the origin of cultivated shiitake mushrooms
Date: 01 July 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is the number one species of cultivated edible mushrooms in the world. In his 1983 monograph, the British mycologist David Pegler recognized three species of Lentinula from Asia-Australasia and two in the Americas. Since then, three more species have been described, two in the Americas and one in Africa (Madagascar). A second African species may occur in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We are using molecular phylogenetics and phylogenomics to understand the diversity and evolution of Lentinula. Phylogenies based on 343 ITS and 116 tef1-α sequences resolve about 14 species-level lineages in the genus. We generated 25 new Lentinula genomes with a broad geographic and taxonomic representation and added 4 published genomes. We also assembled and annotated 60 genomes from Chinese material, previously published as unassembled raw reads. Phylogenomic analyses, including Bayesian coalescent species delimitation approaches, corroborate results based on ITS/tef1-α. East Asian isolates, which correspond to L. edodes s. lato, comprise multiple lineages that may warrant recognition as species. Analyses of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) suggest that there are two major populations of L. edodes s. lato in East Asia. One includes both cultivated and wild-collected isolates, and the other contains only wild isolates. A group of "mixed" isolates contains nearly equal proportions of SNPs assigned to either the cultivated/wild group or the wild group. One interpretation of these results is that there has been introgression from cultivated strains into wild populations, suggesting that shiitake farming poses threats to indigenous biodiversity in Lentinula.
Biography: I am from the state of Massachusetts, in the USA. I attended the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, where I received a bachelor's degree in Botany (1985), then went to Duke University for my PhD, also in Botany (1991). I spent one year in Japan as a postdoctoral fellow at the Tottori Mycological Institute. My next, and much longer, postdoctoral appointment was at the Harvard University Herbaria, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. I joined the faculty of Clark University in 1999.
Speaker: Prof. Jonathan Gershenzon
Title: Tree texts: How poplars communicate with friends and foes using volatile organic compounds
Date: 27 May 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Despite being rooted in place for most of their life cycles, land plants nevertheless communicate with other organisms at a distance via volatile organic compounds. Many reports are now available describing how volatile organics act as signals for insects, microbes, and other plants, but most of these experiments were carried out with herbaceous plants that are used in agriculture.
To learn more about volatile communication in woody plants, we are investigating the black poplar, a native European tree that releases an enormous blend of volatiles compounds, especially after herbivore damage. I will review our results about how native herbivores and herbivore enemies respond to these volatiles. We found that (1) a generalist caterpillar is repelled by damaged foliage, especially after feeding experience, (2) a parasitoid of this caterpillar is attracted to foliage damaged by its host, and (3) after pathogen infection, the caterpillar is attracted and not repelled, while attraction to the parasitoid is reduced. I will discuss the significance of this volatile communication under natural conditions, and which volatiles seem most important in conveying information.
Biography: Jonathan Gershenzon received a PhD in Botany (University of Texas, 1984) while studying the chemotaxonomy of plant terpenes. After investing terpene biosynthesis as a postdoctoral researcher and assistant scientist (Washington State University), he joined the newly founded Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in 1998. His group has focused on the biochemical basis of plant defense against insect herbivores.
Speaker: Dr Andrew Liebhold, US Forest Service Northern Research Station, Morgantown, WV USA
Title: Macroecology of Insect Invasions
Date: 29 April 2021 Time: 16:00 (GMT+2)
Abstract: Biological invasions are largely an unintended consequence of globalization. With increasing mobility, humans have accidentally transported organisms around the world, breaking the geographical boundaries that separated species ranges that persisted for millions of years of evolution. Among animals, the insecta is the most species-rich class, with thousands of insect species having been established outside of their native ranges and many of these species causing immense impacts on agriculture, human health and conservation of native ecosystems. Here, I report on a macroecological analysis of historical insect invasions spanning 300 years and 10 world regions. These data are used to compare frequencies of invasions among different insect orders and among different insect families. Species-area relationships for native insect assemblages are generally stronger than for non-native insect assemblages. Certain groups, such as the Hemiptera, Formicidae and the Staphylinidae are generally over-represented in non-native insect assemblages, while other taxa are under-represented. These patterns generally reflect characteristics of these insects that cause them to enter important invasion pathways and biological c