Publications from the Sentinel Plant Project 

Book chapters

Portgieter LJ, Douwes E, Gaertner M, Measey J, Paap T, Richardson DM. 2020. Biological Invasions in South Africa’s Urban  Ecosystems: Patterns, Processes, Impacts, and Management. In: Biological Invasions in South Africa. van Wilgen BW, Measey J, Richardson DM, Wilson JR, Zengeya TA. (eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 275-309.


Journal articles

Wondafrash M, Wingfield MJ, Wilson JUR, Hurley BP, Slippers B, Paap T. 2021. Botanical gardens as key resources and hazards for biosecurity. Biodiversity and Conservation.

Hulbert JM, Paap T, Burgess TI, Roets F, Wingfield MJ. 2019. Botanical gardens provide valuable baseline Phytophthora diversity data. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 46: 1-7. 

Tchotet Tchoumi JM, Coetzee MPA, Rajchenberg M, Roux J. 2019. Taxonomy and species diversity of Ganoderma species in the Garden Route National Park of South Africa inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogenies. Mycologia 111: 730-747.

Paap T, de Beer ZW, Migliorini D, Nel WJ, Wingfield MJ. 2018. The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and its fungal symbiont Fusarium euwallaceae: a new invasion in South Africa. Australian Plant Pathology 47: 231-237.

Paap T, Burgess T, Wingfield MJ. 2017. Urban trees: bridge-heads for forest pest invasions and sentinels for early detection. Biological Invasions 19: 3515-3526. 


 Views articles 

Nndanduleni M, Gossa MW, Gabayi M, Paap T. 2021. The battle to save iconic silver trees. Veld & Flora. 

Gossa MW, Paap T. 2020. The vital role of botanical gardens in biosecurity. Wood Southern Africa & Timber Times.

Paap T. 2020. Trees in South Africa are under attack. Why its’s proving hard to manage. The Conversation.

De Beer ZW, Paap T. 2018. The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control. The Conversation.



Botanical gardens: why we need them and how they can also pose a risk.


Information Sheet 

De Beer ZW, Paap T. 2019. The Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (Euwallacea whitfordiodendrus) and Fusarium dieback (Fusarium euwallaceae). Information Sheet.


Publication from other research in the gardens 

Chen SF, Wingfield MJ, Roets F, Roux J. 2012. A serious canker disease caused by Immersiporthe knoxdaviesiana gen. et sp. nov. (Cryphonectriaceae) on native Rapanea melanophloeos in South Africa. Plant Pathology 62: 667-678.

Clark TE, Samways MJ. 1997. Sampling arthropod diversity for urban ecological landscaping in a species-rich southern hemisphere botanic garden. Journal of Insect Conservation 1: 221-234.

Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Harrington TC, Steimel J, Coutinho TA, Wingfiled MJ. 2001. The root rot fungus Armillaria mellea introduced into South Africa by early Dutch settlers. Molecular Ecology 10: 387-396.

Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Roux J, Crous JPW, Denman S, Wingfield MJ. 2003. Discovery of two northern hemisphere Armillaria species on Proteaceae in South Africa. Plant Pathology 52: 604-612. 

Coetzee MPA, Musasira NY, Roux J, Roets F, van der Merwe NA, Wingfield MJ. 2018. Armillaria root rot spreading into a natural woody ecosystem in South Africa. Plant Pathology 67: 883-891.

Crous PW, Braun U, Hunter GC, Wingfield MJ, Verkley GJM, Shin H-D, Nakashima C, Groenewald JZ. 2013. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora. Studies in Mycology 75: 37-114.

Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Shivas RG, Edwards J, Seifert KA, Alfenas AC, Alfenas RF, Burgess TI, Carnegie AJ, Hardy GEStJ, Hiscock N, Hüberli D, Jung T, Louis-Seize G, Okada G, Pereira OL, Stukely MJC, W. Wang W, White GP, Young AJ, McTaggart AR, Pascoe IG, Porter IJ, Quaedvlieg W. 2011b. Fungal Planet description sheets: 69-91. Persoonia 26: 108-156.

Crous PW, Summerell BA, Mostert L, Groenewald JZ. 2008. Host specificity and speciation of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf spots of Proteaceae. Persoonia 20: 59-86.

Crous PW, Summerell BA, Shivas RG, Burgess TI, Decock CA, Dreyer LL, Granke LL, Guest DI, Hardy GEStJ, Hausbeck MK, Hüberli D, Jung T, Koukol O, Lennox CL, Liew ECY, Lombard L1, McTaggart AR, Pryke JS, Roets F, Saude C, Shuttleworth LA, Stukely MJC, Vánky K, Webster BJ, Windstam ST, Groenewald JZ. 2012. Fungal Planet description sheets: 107-127. Persoonia 28: 138-182.

Crous PW, Summerell BA, Swart L, Denman S, Taylor JE, Bezuidenhout CM, Palm ME, Marincowitz S, Groenewald JZ. 2011a. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae. Persoonia 27: 20-45.

Crous PW, Verkley GJM, Groenewald JZ, Samson RA (eds). 2009. Fungal Biodiversity. CBS Laboratory Manual Series 1. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Guarro J, Hernández-Restrepo M, Sutton DA, Acharya K, Barber PA, Boekhout T, Dimitrov RA, Dueñas M, Dutta AK, Gené J, Gouliamova DE, Groenewald M, Lombard L, Morozova OV, Sarkar J, Smith JMTh, Stchigel AM, Wiederhold NP, Alexandrova AV, Antelmi I, Armengol J, Barnes I, Cano-Lira JF, Ruiz RFC, Contu M, Courtecuisse PrR, da Silveira AL, Decock CA, de Goes A, Edathodu J, Ercole E, Firmino AC, Fourie A, Fournier J, Furtado EL, Geering ADW, Gershenzon J, Giraldo A, Gramaje AD, Hammerbacher A, He X-L, Haryadi D, Khemmuk W, Kovalenko AE, Krawczynski R, Laich F, Lechat C, Lopes UP, Madrid H, Malysheva EF, Marín-Felix Y, Martín MP, Mostert L, Nigro F, Pereira OL, Picillo B, Pinho DB, Popov ES, Rodas Peláez CA, Rooney-Latham S, Sandoval-Denis M, Shivas RG, Silva V, Stoilova-Disheva MM, Telleria MT, Ullah C, Unsicker SB, van der Merwe NA, Vizzini A, Wagner H-G, Wong PTW, Wood AR, Groenewald JZ. 2015. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370. Persoonia 34: 167-266.

Machingambi NM, Dreyer LL, Oberlander KC, Roux J, Roets F. 2014a. Death of endemic Virgilia oroboides trees in South Africa caused by Diaporthe virgiliae sp. nov. Plant Pathology 64: 1149-1156.

Machingambi NM, Roux J, Dreyer LL, Roets F. 2014b. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), their phoretic mites (Acari) and associated Geosmithia species (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Virgilia trees in South Africa. Fungal Biology 118: 472-483.

Nagel JH, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M. 2015. Multiple Phytophthora species associated with a single riparian ecosystem in South Africa. Mycologia 107: 915-925.

Nesamari R, Coutinho TA, Roux J. 2017. Investigations into Encephalartos insect pests and diseases in South Africa and identification of Phytophthora cinnamomi as a pathogen of the Modjadji cycad. Plant Pathology 66: 612-622.

Nesamari R, Millar IM, Coutinho TA, Roux J. 2015. South African cycads at risk: Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in South Africa. African Entomology 23: 196-206.

Quaedvlieg W, Verkley GJM, Shin H-D, Barreto RW, Alfenas AC, Swart WJ, J.Z. Groenewald JZ, Crous PW. 2013. Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology 75: 307-390.

Wikee S, Lombard L, Nakashima C, Motohashi K, Chukeatirote E, Cheewangkoon R, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Crous PW. 2013. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales). Studies in Mycology 76: 1-29.

Wingfield MJ, Coetzee MPA, Crous PW, Six D, Wingfield BD. 2011. Fungal phoenix rising from the ashes? IMA Fungus 1: 149-153.