Dr Trudy Paap

Research Fellow


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Research Profiles

Co Supervisor
Allan Gonzalez

Worldwide forests are increasingly under threat from invasive pests and pathogens.  While impacts of tree health disasters are experienced locally, the drivers of their emergence are global; therefore, a strategy for dealing with pests and pathogens is urgently required at a global level. The International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) (www.plantsentinel.org) has been established with the objective of functioning as an early warning system to identify new and emerging pest and pathogen risks, and my current research will use the IPSN as background to improve surveillance and identification of new and emerging pest and pathogen risks by using botanic gardens and arboreta as sentinel sites for tree health monitoring.  The focus area of detection is central to the project, but in addition, using sentinel plants within botanic gardens also provides relevant information on a particular pest, including potential host range, which can then be used to determine the risk a pest poses and potentially aid in the development of appropriate eradication and/or containment programmes.

My previous research included the detection and management of Phytophthora cinnamomi in natural ecosystems of south west Western Australia, and understanding the underlying causes of and determining practical management solutions to canker disease of Corymbia calophylla (marri), a keystone tree species of SWWA, caused by the endemic fungal pathogen Quambalaria coyrecup.

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Book Chapters
Potgieter LJ, Douwes E, Gaertner M, Measey J, Paap T, Richardson DM. 2020. Biological Invasions in South Africa’s Urban Ecosystems: Patterns, Processes, Impacts, and Management. In: Biological Invasions in South Africa. van Wilgen BW, Measey J, Richardson DM, Wilson JR, Zengeya TA. (eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 275-309. PDF
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De Wit MP, Crookes DJ, Blignaut JN, de Beer ZW, Paap T, Roets F, Van der Merwe C, Richardson DM. (2021) Invasion of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle in South Africa: A preliminary assessment of theeconomic impacts. Biological Invasions PREPRINT 10.21203/rs.3.rs-220132/v1
Sapsfors SJ, Paap T, Hardy GEStJ, Burgess TI. (2021) Anthropogenic Disturbance Impacts Mycorrhizal Communities and Abiotic Soil Properties: Implications for an Endemic Forest Disease. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3:593243. 10.3389/ffgc.2020.593243
Paap T, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW, Roets F. (2020) Lessons from a major pest invasion: The polyphagous shot hole borer in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 116(11/12) 10.17159/sajs.2020/8757
Burgess TI, López-Villamor A, Paap T, Williams B, Belhaj R, Crone M, Dunstan W, Howard K, Hardy GEStJ. (2020) Towards a best practice methodology for the detection of Phytophthora species in soils. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13312
Paap T, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI, Hulbert JM, Santini A. (2020) Harmonising the fields of invasion science and forest pathology. NeoBiota 62:301-332. 10.3897/neobiota.62.52991 PDF
Sapsford SJ, Paap T, Hopkins AJM, Hardy GESJ, Burgess TI. (2019) Habitat fragmentation in a Mediterranean-type forest alters resident and propagule mycorrhizal fungal communities. Pedobiologia :150611. 10.1016/j.pedobi.2019.150611
Ahrens CW, Mazanec RA, Paap T, Ruthrof KX, Challis A, Hardy G, Byrne M, Tissue DT, Rymer PD. (2019) Adaptive variation for growth and resistance to a novel pathogen along climatic gradients in a foundation tree. Evolutionary Applications 10.1111/eva.12796
Hulbert JM, Paap T, Burgess TI, Roets F, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Botanical gardens provide valuable baseline Phytophthora diversity data. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 46:126461. 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126461
Paap T, Burgess TI, Rolo V, Steel E, Hardy GESJ. (2018) Anthropogenic disturbance impacts stand structure and susceptibility of an iconic tree species to an endemic canker pathogen. Forest Ecology and Management 425:145-153. 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.05.055
Paap T, de Beer ZW, Migliorini D, Nel W, Wingfield MJ. (2018) The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and its fungal symbiont Fusarium euwallaceae: a new invasion in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 47(2):231-237. 10.1007/s13313-018-0545-0 PDF
Croeser L, Paap T, Calver MC, Andrew ME, Hardy GEStJ, Burgess TI. (2018) Field survey, isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Phytophthora species associated with a Mediterranean-type tree species . Forest Pathology 10.1111/efp.12424
Simamora AV, Paap T, Howard K, Stukely MJC, Hardy GEStJ, Burgess TI. (2017) Phytophthora Contamination in a Nursery and Its Potential Dispersal into the Natural Environment. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0689-RE
Paap T, Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ. (2017) Urban trees: bridge-heads for forest pest invasions and sentinels for early detection. Biological Invasions 19(12):3515-3526. 10.1007/s10530-017-1595-x PDF
Paap T, Brouwers NC, Burgess TI, Hardy GEStJ. (2017) Importance of climate, anthropogenic disturbance and pathogens (Quambalaria coyrecup and Phytophthora spp.) on marri (Corymbia calophylla) tree health in southwest Western Australia. Annals of Forest Science 74(3):62-71. 10.1007/s13595-017-0658-6
Sapsford SJ, Paap T, Hardy GEStJ, Burgess TI. (2017) The 'chicken or the egg': which comes first, forest tree decline or loss of mycorrhizae?. Plant Ecology 10.1007/s11258-017-0754-6
Paap T, Croeser L, White D, Aghighi S, Barber P, Hardy GEStJ, Burgess TI. (2017) Phytophthora versiformis sp. nov., a new species from Australia related to P. quercina. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-017-0499-7
Burgess T, White D, McDougall K, Garnas J, Dunstan W, Català S, Carnegie A, Worboys S, Cahill D, Vettraino AM, Stukely M, Liew E, Paap T, Bose T, Migliorini D, Williams B, Brigg F, Crane C, Rudman T, Hardy G. (2017) Phytophthora distribution and diversity across Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 23(1-13) 10.1071/PC16032
Paap T, Burgess TI, Calver M, McComb JA, Shearer BL, Hardy GES. (2016) A thirteen-year study on the impact of a severe canker disease of Corymbia calophylla, a keystone tree in Mediterranean-type forests. Forest Pathology 10.1111/efp.12292
Stasikowski PM, McComb JA, Scott P, Paap T, O’Brien PA, Hardy GESJ. (2014) Calcium sulphate soil treatments augment the survival of phosphite-sprayed Banksia leptophylla infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australasian Plant Pathology 43(4):369-379. 10.1007/s13313-014-0303-x
Barber PA, Paap T, Burgess TI, Dunstan W, Hardy GESJ. (2013) A diverse range of Phytophthora species are associated with dying urban trees. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 12(4):569-575. 10.1016/j.ufug.2013.07.009
Jung T, Stukely MJC, Hardy G, White D, Paap T, Dunstan WA, Burgess TI. (2011) Multiple new Phytophthora species from ITS Clade 6 associated with natural ecosystems in Australia: evolutionary and ecological implications. Persoonia 26:13-39. 10.3767/003158511X557577
Dunstan WA, Rudman T, Shearer BL, Moore NA, Paap T, Calver MC, Dell B, Hardy GESJ. (2010) Containment and spot eradication of a highly destructive, invasive plant pathogen (Phytophthora cinnamomi) in natural ecosystems. Biological Invasions 12(4):913-925. 10.1007/s10530-009-9512-6
Paap T, Burgess TI, McComb JA, Shearer BL, Hardy GESJ. (2008) Quambalaria species, including Q. coyrecup sp. nov., implicated in canker and shoot blight diseases causing decline of Corymbia species in the southwest of Western Australia. Mycological Research 112(1):57-69. 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.10.005
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Paap T. (2020) Trees in South Africa are under attack. Why it’s proving hard to manage. The Conversation http://bit.ly/2twjJ3e
De Beer ZW, Paap T. (2018) The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control. The Conversation https://bit.ly/2Dl46ia