The Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) was established based on a very small team of researchers at the University of the Free State and focused on a single threatening Eucalyptus disease problem. The programme has since grown to become highly recognised internationally as the single strongest programme dealing with pest and pathogen problems in plantation forestry in the world. The TPCP has also brought huge energy to agricultural research and education in the biological sciences in South Africa. For example, it formed the foundation for the establishment of the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) at the University of Pretoria, which has become a flagship research centre promoting many aspects of plant improvement in South Africa.

The TPCP represents a Co-operative research initiative between the University of Pretoria and all private forestry companies in South Africa. It is also supported by the South African Government Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Other than long and short-term research, the TPCP provides members with extension services, training of forestry students at Universities, access to a world-class disease and pest diagnostic clinic and guidance in dealing with tree pest and pathogen problems. One of the key products of the TPCP is to produce biological control agents for insect pests that damage plantations belonging to members. This work depends on outstanding quarantine green house and related facilities.

The TPCP formed the basis for the establishment of the Department of Science and Technology (DST)/National Research Foundation (NRF) Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB). This programme focuses on the health of native South African trees. Given that pests and pathogens are moving from native to non-native plantation trees and vice versa, there is substantial synergy between these two programmes.

New Publications

Lynn KMT, Wingfield MJ, Durán A, Oliveira LSS, de Beer ZW, Barnes I. (2021) Novel Fusarium mutualists of two Euwallacea species infesting Acacia crassicarpa in Indonesia. Mycologia 10.1080/00275514.2021.1875708 PDF
Gwizdala M, Lebre PH, Maggs-Kölling G, Marais E, Cowan DA, Krüger TPJ. (2021) Sub-lithic photosynthesis in hot desert habitats. Environmental Microbiology 10.1111/1462-2920.15505
Sinotte VM, Conlon BH, Seibel E, Schwitalla JW, de Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Bos N. (2021) Female-biased sex allocation and lack of inbreeding avoidance in Cubitermes termites. Ecology and Evolution 10.1002/ece3.7462
Jamison-Daniels SL, Kissling WD, Botha M, Harris MA, Gordon CE, Greve M. (2021) The role of deterministic succession during forest development within a southern African savanna. bioTropica 53(2):466-476. 10.1111/btp.12890
Nel WJ, Wingfield MJ, De Beer ZW, Duong TA. (2021) Ophiostomatalean fungi associated with wood boring beetles in South Africa including two new species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10.1007/s10482-021-01548-0
van der Nest MA, Chávez R, De Vos L, Duong TA, Gil-Durán C, Ferreira MA, Lane FA, Levicán G, Santana QC, Steenkamp ET, Suzuki H, Tello M, Rakoma JR, Vaca I, Valdés N, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2021) Draft genome sequences of Penicillium roqueforti, Fusarium sororula, Chrysoporthe puriensis, and Chalaropsis populi. IMA Fungus 12:5. 10.1186/s43008-021-00055-1 PDF
Phasha MM, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Coetzee MPA, Hallen-Adams H, Fru F, Swalarsk-Parry BS, Yilmaz N, Duong TA, Steenkamp ET. (2021) Ras2 is important for growth and pathogenicity in Fusarium circinatum. 150:103541. 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103541
De Wit MP, Crookes DJ, Blignaut JN, de Beer ZW, Paap T, Roets F, Van der Merwe C, Richardson DM. (2021) Invasion of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle in South Africa: A preliminary assessment of the economic impacts. Biological Invasions PREPRINT 10.21203/rs.3.rs-220132/v1
Migliorini D, Messal M, Santini A, Ramos AP, Talhinhas P, Wingfield MJ, Burgess T. (2021) Metabarcoding reveals southern hemisphere fungal endophytes within wood of cultivated Proteaceae in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology 10.1007/s10658-021-02233-8
Balocchi F, Wingfield MJ, Ahumada R, Barnes I. (2021) Pewenomyces kutranfy gen nov. et sp. nov. causal agent of an important canker disease on Araucaria araucana in Chile. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13353
Mullett MS, Drenkhan R, Adamson K, Boroń P, Lenart-Boroń A, Barnes I, Tomšovský M, Jánošíková Z, Adamčíková K, Ondrušková E, Queloz V, Piškur B, Musolin DL, Davydenko K, Georgieva M, Schmitz S, Kačergius A, Ghelardini L, Kranjec Orlović J, Müller M, Oskay F, Hauptman T, Halász Á, Markovskaja S, Solheim H, Vuorinen M, Heinzelmann R, Hamelin RC, Konečný A. (2021) Worldwide genetic structure elucidates the Eurasian origin and invasion pathways of Dothistroma septosporum, causal agent of Dothistroma Needle Blight. Journal of Fungi 7:111. 10.3390/jof7020111
van Wyk S, Wingfield B, De Vos L, van der Merwe A, Steenkamp E. (2021) Genome-Wide Analyses of Repeat-Induced Point Mutations in the Ascomycota. Frontiers in Microbiology 11(Article 622368):1-17. 10.3389/fmicb.2020.622368 PDF
Nsibo DL, Barnes I, Omondi DO, Dida MM, Berger DK. (2021) Population genetic structure and migration patterns of the maize pathogenic fungus, Cercospora zeina in East and Southern Africa. Fungal Genetics and Biology (103527) 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103527
Van der Nest M, Hlongwane N, Hadebe K, Chan W, Van der Merwe N, De Vos L, Greyling B, Kooverjee B, Soma P, Dzomba E, Bradfield M, Muchadeyi F. (2021) Breed ancestry, divergence, admixture, and selection patterns of the Simbra crossbreed. Frontiers in Genetics 11:1796. 10.3389/fgene.2020.608650 PDF
Pham NQ, Marincowitz S, Solís M, Duong TA, Wingfield BD, Barnes I, Slippers B, Muro Abad JI, Durán A, Wingfield MJ. (2021) Eucalyptus scab and shoot malformation: A new and serious foliar disease of Eucalyptus caused by Elsinoe necatrix sp. nov.. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13348 PDF
Fraser S, McTaggart AR, Roux J, Nel J, Potgieter J, Shuey L, Somchat C, Wingfield MJ. (2021) The life cycle and field epidemiology of Uromycladium acaciae (Pucciniales) on Acacia mearnsii in South Africa. Annals of Applied Biology 10.1111/aab.12677
Wu WX, Chen SF. (2021) Species diversity, mating strategy, and pathogenicity of Calonectria species from diseased leaves and soils in the Eucalyptus plantation in southern China. Journal of Fungi 7 10.3390/jof7020073 PDF
Hurley BP. (2021) The enemy of my enemy is my friend. TIP-MAG (2):4-6. PDF
Murphy R, Benndorf R, de Beer ZW, Vollmers J, Kaster AK, Beemelmanns C, Poulsen M. (2021) Comparative Genomics Reveals Prophylactic and Catabolic Capabilities of Actinobacteria within the Fungus-Farming Termite Symbiosis. bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.01.13.426627
Schalk F, Gostinčar C, Kreuzenbeck NB, Conlon BH, Sommerwerk E, Rabe P, Burkhardt I, Krüger T, Kniemeyer O, Brakhage AA, Gunde-Cimerman N, de Beer ZW, Dickschat JS, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2021) The termite fungal cultivar Termitomyces combines diverse enzymes and oxidative reactions for plant biomass conversion. mBio :2021.01.13.4266. 10.1101/2021.01.13.426627
Wilson AM, Gabriel R, Singer SW, Schuerg T, Wilken PM, van der Nest MA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2021) Doing it alone: Unisexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycete fungi. Fungal Biology Reviews 35:1-13. 10.1016/j.fbr.2020.12.003
Krämer D, Lane FA, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD, Wilken PM. (2021) Unidirectional mating-type switching confers self-fertility to Thielaviopsis cerberus, the only homothallic species in the genus. Fungal Biology 10.1016/j.funbio.2020.12.007
Havenga M, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Marincowitz S, Dreyer LL, Roets F, Japarudin Y, Aylward J. (2021) Genetic recombination in Teratosphaeria destructans causing a new disease outbreak in Malaysia. Forest Pathology :e12683. 10.1111/efp.12683 PDF
Linnakoski R, Sutela S, Coetzee MPA, Duong TA, Pavlov IN, Litovka YA, Hantula J, Wingfield BD, Vainio EJ. (2021) Armillaria root rot fungi host single-stranded RNA viruses. 11:7336. 10.1038/s41598-021-86343-7
Van den Berg N, Swart V, Backer R, Fick A, Wienk R, Engelbrecht J, Prabhu S. (2021) Advances in understanding defense mechanisms in Persea americana against Phytophthora cinnamomi. Frontiers in Plant Science 12:123. 10.3389/fpls.2021.636339
Guignard Q, Bouwer M, Slippers B, Allison J. (2020) Biology of a putative male aggregation-sex pheromone in Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). 15(12):e0244943. 10.1371/journal.pone.0244943 PDF
Roux J, Nkuekan GK, Marincowitz S, van der Merwe NA, Uchida J, Wingfield MJ, Chen SF. (2020) Chryphonectriaceae associated with rust-infected Syzigium jambos in Hawaii.. MycoKeys 76:49-79. 10.3897/mycokeys.76.58406
Zamora-Ballesteros C, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Martín-García J, Diez JJ. (2020) Residual effects caused by a past mycovirus infection in Fusarium circinatum. Forests 12(11) 10.3390/f12010011
Coetzee MPA, Santana QC, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2020) Fungal genomes enhance our understanding of the pathogens affecting trees cultivated in Southern Hemisphere plantations. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 82(3) 10.2989/20702620.2020.1819153
Herron DA, Wingfield MJ, Fru F, Wingfield BD, Steenkamp ET. (2020) Grasses as a refuge for Fusarium circinatum L. – evidence from South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 82(3):253-262. 10.2989/20702620.2020.1813649 PDF
Bush SJ, Slippers B, Hurley BP. (2020) Eucalypt susceptibility towards the invasive Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) in South Africa. Southern Forests 82:243-252. 10.2989/20702620.2020.1824556
Capron A, Feau N, Heinzelmann R, Barnes I, Benowicz A, Bradshaw RE, Dale A, Lewis KJ, Owen TJ, Reich R, Ramsfield TD, Woods AJ, Hamelin RC. (2020) Signatures of post-glacial genetic isolation and human-driven migration in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogen in western Canada. Phytopathology :116-127. 10.1094/PHYTO-08-20-0350-FI
Makunde PT, Slippers B, Burckhardt D, de Queiroz DL, Lawson SA, Hurley BP. (2020) Current and potential threat of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) on eucalypts. Southern Forests 82:233-242. 10.2989/20702620.2020.1813650
Mesanza N, Raposo R, Elvira‐Recuenco M, Barnes I, van der Nest A, Hernández M, Pascual MT, Barrena I, Martín US, Cantero A, Hernandez‐Escribano L, Iturritxa E. (2020) New hosts for Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma septosporum in newly established arboreta in Spain. Forest Pathology 00:e12650 10.1111/efp.12650
Krivak-Tetley FE, Lantschner MV, Lombardero MJ, Garnas JR, Hurley BP, Villacide JM, Slippers B, Corley J, Liebhold AM, Ayers MP. (2020) Aggressive tree killer or natural thinning agent? Assessing the impacts of a globally important forest insect. Forest Ecology and Management 10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118728
Teshome DT, Zharare GE, Naidoo S. (2020) The threat of the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stress factors in forestry under a changing climate. Frontiers in Plant Science 10.3389/fpls.2020.601009 PDF
Paap T, Wingfield MJ, de Beer ZW, Roets F. (2020) Lessons from a major pest invasion: The polyphagous shot hole borer in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 116(11/12) 10.17159/sajs.2020/8757
Slippers B. (2020) The Plant Disease Pyramid: The relevance of the original vision of plant pathology in 2020. South Africa Journal of Science 116(11/12) 10.17159/sajs.2020/9011
Wingfield MJ, Hurley BP, Wingfield BD, Slippers B. (2020) Tree health in South Africa: Retrospect and prospect. South Africa Journal of Science 116(11/12) 10.17159/sajs.2020/8038
Soewarto J, Somchit C, du Plessis E, Barnes I, Granados GM, Wingfield MJ, Shuey L, Bartlett M, Fraser S, Scott P, Miller E, Waipara N, Sutherland R, Ganley B. (2020) Susceptibility of native New Zealand Myrtaceae to the South African strain of Austropuccinia psidii: A biosecurity threat. Plant Pathology :1-9. 10.1111/ppa.13321
Oates C, Denby K, Myburg A, Slippers B, Naidoo S. (2020) Insect egg‐induced physiological changes and transcriptional reprogramming leading to gall formation. Plant, Cell & Environment 10.1111/pce.13930
Slippers B, Hurley BP, Allison JD. (2020) Harnessing the potential of Precision Pest Management in plantation forests. Southern Forests 10.2989/20702620.2020.1813651
Noeth KP, Verleur PM, Bouwer MC, Crous JW, Roux J, Hurley BP, Slippers B. (2020) Mass trapping of Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) using a sex pheromone in Eucalyptus nitens compartments in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Southern Forests 10.2989/20702620.2020.1813648
Geiser DM, Al-Hatmi A, Aoki T, Arie T, Balmas V, Barnes I, Bergstrom GC, Bhattacharyya MKK, Blomquist CL, Bowden R, Brankovics B, Brown DW, Burgess LW, Bushley K, Busman M, Cano-Lira JF, Carrillo JD, Chang HX, Chen CY, Chen W, Chilvers MI, Chulze SN, Coleman JJ, Cuomo CA, de Beer ZW, de Hoog GS, Del Castillo-Múnera J, Del Ponte E, Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Di Pietro A, Edel-Hermann V, Elmer WH, Epstein L, Eskalen A, Esposto MC, Everts KL, Fernández-Pavía SP, da Silva GF, Foroud NA, Fourie G, Frandsen RJN, Freeman S, Freitag M, Frenkel O, Fuller KK, Gagkaeva T, Gardiner DM, Glenn AE, Gold S, Gordon T, Gregory NF, Gryzenhout M, Guarro J, Gugino B, Gutiérrez S, Hammond-Kosack K, Harris LJ, Homa M, Hong CF, Hornok L, Huang JW, Ilkit M, Jacobs A, Jacobs K, Jiang C, Jimenez-Gasco MDM, Kang S, Kasson MT, Kazan K, Kennell JC, Kim H, Kistler HC, Kuldau GA, Kulik T, Kurzai O, Laraba I, Laurence MH, Lee TY, Lee YW, Lee YH, Leslie JF, Liew ECY, Lofton LW, Logrieco A, Sánchez López-Berges M, Luque AG, Lysøe E, Ma LJ, Marra RE, Martin FN, May SR, McCormick S, McGee CT, Meis JF, Migheli Q, Mohamed Nor NMI, Monod M, Moretti A, Mostert D, Mulé G, Munaut F, Munkvold GP, Nicholson P, Nucci M, O'Donnell K, Pasquali M, Pfenning LH, Prigitano A, Proctor R, Ranque S, Rehner S, Rep M, Rodríguez-Alvarado G, Rose LJ, Roth MG, Ruiz-Roldán C, Saleh AA, Salleh B, Sang H, Scandiani M, Scauflaire J, Schmale D 3, Short DP, Šišić A, Smith J, Smyth CW, Son H, Spahr E, Stajich JE, Steenkamp E, Steinberg C, Subramaniam R, Suga H, Summerell BA, Susca A, Swett CL, Toomajian C, Torres-Cruz TJ, Tortorano AM, Urban M, Vaillancourt LJ, Vallad GE, van der Lee T, Vanderpool D, van Diepeningen AD, Vaughan M, Venter E, Vermeulen M, Verweij PE, Viljoen A, Waalwijk C, Wallace EC, Walther G, Wang J, Ward T, Wickes B, Wiederhold NP, Wingfield MJ, Wood AKM, Xu JR, Yang XB, Yli-Matilla T, Yun SH, Zakaria L, Zhang H, Zhang N, Zhang S, Zhang X. (2020) Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1 kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic Fusarium that includes the Fusarium solani Species Complex. Phytopathology 10.1094/PHYTO-08-20-0330-LE
Li JQ, Barnes I, Liu FF, Wingfield MJ, Chen SF. (2020) Global genetic diversity and mating type distribution of Calonectria pauciramosa: an important wide host-range plant pathogen.. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-05-20-1050-RE
Burgess TI, López-Villamor A, Paap T, Williams B, Belhaj R, Crone M, Dunstan W, Howard K, Hardy GEStJ. (2020) Towards a best practice methodology for the detection of Phytophthora species in soils. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13312
Motaung TE, Peremore C, Wingfield BD, Steenkamp ET. (2020) Plant-associated fungal biofilms – knowns and unknowns. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 10.1093/femsec/fiaa224
Garnas JR, Vann KE, Hurley BP. (2020) Biotic and abiotic effects on density, body size, sex ratio, and survival in immature stages of the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio. Ecology and Evolution 10.1002/ece3.6966 PDF
Mufamadi Z, Fourie G, Willis-Boyum A, van den Berg N. (2020) Husk rot disease: causal agents and disease epidemiology. SAMAC Journal PDF
Pal E, Hurley BP, Slippers B, Fourie G. (2020) Progress towards characterisation of pheromones of Bathycoelia distincta. SAMAC Journal PDF